Chemical NewsChemical News is your source of fresh chemistry data and insights. Chemical news are aggregated from multiple chemistry sources and presented here for convenient consumption.
Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
- How Make-Up Makes Men Admire but Other Women Jealous
Men think women with make-up on are more 'prestigious', while women think women who wear make-up are more 'dominant,' a psychology study has found.
- Sparrows with unfaithful 'wives' care less for their young
Sparrows form pair bonds that are normally monogamous, but many females are unfaithful to their partner and have offspring with other males. Biologists believe that the male birds are unfaithful to ensure they father as many chicks as they can, while females are unfaithful with males of better 'genetic quality' -- ones that are fitter and could produce stronger offspring. But new research shows that cheating comes with a cost -- the cheating female's partner will provide less food for their nest of young.
- Giant Blobs of Rock, Deep Inside the Earth, Hold Important Clues About Our Planet
Two massive blob-like structures lie deep within the Earth, roughly on opposite sides of the planet. The two structures, each the size of a continent and 100 times taller than Mount Everest, sit on the core, 1,800 miles deep, and about halfway to the center of the Earth. Researchers suggest these blobs are made of something different from the rest of Earth's mantle, and are determined to figure out what that is.
- New devices causing 'paradigm shift' in stroke care
New devices called stent retrievers, which effectively reverse strokes, are revolutionizing the treatment of certain stroke patients, report investigators.
- Cross talk between hormone receptors has unexpected effects
Although the estrogen receptor is considered dominant in breast cancer, the progesterone receptor assumes control when both receptors are present and exposed to estrogens and progestins. Then, the progesterone receptor drives estrogen receptor activity. Treating tumor-bearing mice with an estrogen antagonist and a progestin antagonist caused rapid tumor regression, report scientists at the conclusion of their study.
- Scientists uncover route for finding out what makes individuals nice or nasty
A scientist has helped develop an innovative mathematical model for exploring why some individuals evolve to be genetically programmed to be nice, while others stay nasty.
- For nature, gravel-bed rivers most important feature in mountainous western North America
Gravel-bed river floodplains are some of the most ecologically important habitats in North America, according to a new study by scientists from the US and Canada. Their research shows how broad valleys coming out of glaciated mountains provide highly productive and important habitat for a large diversity of aquatic, avian and terrestrial species.
- Hairs, feathers and scales have a lot in common
The potential evolutionary link between hairs in mammals, feathers in birds and scales in reptiles has been debated for decades. Today, researchers demonstrate that all these skin appendages are homologous. On the basis of analyses of embryonic development, the biologists evidenced molecular and micro-anatomical signatures that are identical between hairs, feathers and scales at their early developmental stages. These observations indicate that the three structures evolved from their common reptilian ancestor.
- New doubts on Zika as cause of microcephaly
Brazil's microcephaly epidemic continues to pose a mystery -- if Zika is the culprit, why are there no similar epidemics in other countries also hit hard by the virus? In Brazil, the microcephaly rate soared with more than 1,500 confirmed cases. But in Colombia, a recent study of nearly 12,000 pregnant women infected with Zika found zero microcephaly cases. If Zika is to blame for microcephaly, where are the missing cases?
- Philippine fishing and its links to Japan’s 'sea women'
A researcher is studying the ancient Japanese culture of “ama” – women who traditionally free-dive in the sea in search of seaweed, lobsters, snail “turbo” shells and, in the distant past, pearls – and its potential connections to Philippine maritime cultures.
- Green fluorescent protein a potential scaffold for protein assembly
A protein-scaffolding tool has been developed that paves the way for the assembly of diverse proteins with defined structures and functions.
- Computer models show park microclimates improve city life
Computer modelling based on microclimate data from a Malaysian public park has shown how adding trees and grass can improve living conditions in dense city cores.
- Common chemical highly toxic to blood cell precursors
Scientists have provided evidence that a widely used chemical is more toxic to certain blood cell precursors in the bone marrow than to others.
- Exploring the prehistory of Palawan Island through human remains
Researchers are excavating human remains from caves in Palawan Island in the Philippines to learn more about the diversity of burial and other cultural practices over the past 10,000 years.
- The switch that could double USB memory
Scientists have developed a device that employs both magnetic and electronic signals, which could provide twice the storage capacity of conventional memory devices, such as USB flash drives.
- Scientists discover unsuspected bacterial link to bile duct cancer
Findings of a new study could open up possibilities for more targeted therapies for bile duct cancer. A research team discovered that bile duct tissue harboured a community of diverse bacteria species. Stenotrophomonas species -- previously implicated in bile duct infections -- were found to be preferentially dwelling in tumor tissue (compared to normal tissue) of non-fluke-infected Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) patients, highlighting their potential role in development of CCA.
- Exhausting our green shipping options
Scientists have developed a revolutionary emissions abatement system that removes pollutants from exhaust gas to help the international shipping industry meet ambitious emissions targets.
- Turning sewage sludge into concrete
Dried sewage sludge could be recycled by adding it to cement to make concrete, report researchers in Malaysia. Disposing sludge left over from treating sewage water is a major challenge for wastewater plants in Malaysia, and as the population climbs, the problem is only expected to worsen.
- Chaining up to move a hefty meal
Researchers have documented the first known instance of insects moving prey by forming chains. In 2010, ant researchers spotted chains of bluish ants dragging a huge millipede in Phnom Kulen National Park, Cambodia. Each ant bit on a constriction on the abdomen of the ant ahead of it, while the first ant bit tight on the millipede's antenna. Walking backwards, the ants heaved the millipede away.
- 'Ergo Kid' chairs, tables developed for comfort of students
A researcher has developed an adjustable tables where the front portion can be tilted for easy reading and writing in order to minimize the ergonomic health risks among school children.
- Parents, especially fathers, play key role in young adults' health
Parents, and especially fathers, play a vital role in developing healthy behaviors in young adults and helping to prevent obesity in their children. When it came to predicting whether a young male will become overweight or obese, the mother-son relationship mattered far less than the relationship between father and son.
- Relationship quality tied to good health for young adults
For young people entering adulthood, high-quality relationships are associated with better physical and mental health, according to the results of a new study.
- Primary care visits result in more colon cancer screening, better followups
People who visit their primary care physicians are more likely to get potentially life-saving colon cancer screenings and follow up on abnormal stool blood test results -- even in health systems that heavily promote mail-in home stool blood tests that don't require a doctor visit, a study shows.
- What did Earth's ancient magnetic field look like?
Earth's ancient magnetic field was significantly different than the present day field, originating from several poles rather than the familiar two, new research suggests. Then, shortly after our planet's core solidified, this work predicts that Earth's magnetic field transitioned to a 'strong,' two-pole one.
- Neonicotinoid pesticides cause harm to honeybees
One possible cause of the alarming bee mortality we are witnessing is the use of the very active systemic insecticides called neonicotinoids. A previously unknown and harmful effect of neonicotinoids has been identified by researchers. They discovered that neonicotinoids in low and field-relevant concentrations reduce the concentration of acetylcholine in the royal jelly/larval food secreted by nurse bees.
- Beneficial bacteria may protect breasts from cancer
Bacteria that have the potential to abet breast cancer are present in the breasts of cancer patients, while beneficial bacteria are more abundant in healthy breasts, where they may actually be protecting women from cancer, according a study. These findings may lead ultimately to the use of probiotics to protect women against breast cancer.
- Beach replenishment helps protect against storm erosion during El Niño
A comparison of recent and previous nourishments of San Diego beaches suggests that a larger sand grain size improved nourishment performance.
- Regenerative medicine offering new treatment for bronchopleural fistulas
For the first time in human application, researchers successfully closed an open wound on the upper chest caused by postoperative complications of lung removal. The protocol and approach were based on an ongoing trial investigating this method to treat anal fistulas in Crohn's disease.
- Tiny algae ideal for sniffing out nutrient pollution in water
Tiny algae, called diatoms, living in water could be key to providing a definitive and clear measure of whether streams, rivers and lakes have damaging levels of nutrients in them.
- Computer sketches set to make online shopping much easier
A computer program that recognizes sketches could help consumers shop more efficiently. Fine-grained sketch-based image retrieval (SBIR) overcomes problems with using words to describe visual objects in words, especially when dealing with precise details, and with using photos, which can restrict the search far too narrowly.
- DNA testing challenges traditional species classification
Experts have made a surprising discovery that could subvert the significance of traditional criteria used for species classification. Employing novel techniques to retrieve DNA sequences from thousands of genomic locations, the researchers were able to uncover an unusual case of cryptic speciation in the Streak-eared Bulbul [Pycnonotus blanfordi], a bird widespread throughout South-east Asian countries.
- Tiny multi-function antenna for laptops
A tech start-up has invented a world-first multi-function antenna for laptops that fits into the extremely limited space of the hinge cavity.
- Researchers offer new theory on how climate affects violence
Researchers have long struggled to explain why some violent crime rates are higher near the equator than other parts of the world. Now, a team of researchers has developed a model that could help explain why.
- Eyewitnesses who collaborate make fewer mistakes in police interview
Witnesses correct each other's errors. Two recently published research studies show that witnesses make fewer errors when they are interviewed together than when they are interviewed separately. This stands in sharp contrast with current police guidelines to always interview witnesses separately.
- 'Flower Power': Photovoltaic cells replicate rose petals
With a surface resembling that of plants, solar cells improve light-harvesting and thus generate more power. Scientists reproduced the epidermal cells of rose petals that have particularly good antireflection properties and integrated the transparent replicas into an organic solar cell. This resulted in a relative efficiency gain of twelve percent.
- New tool to measure polarization of light
Researchers have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement.
- Should first-year college students assessed as needing remedial math take college-level quantitative courses instead?
Policies placing first-year college students assessed as needing remedial math directly into college-level quantitative courses, with additional support, can increase student success, according to a first-of-its-kind study.
- Aggressiveness of acute myeloid leukemia elucidated
Scientists have discovered why acute leukemias with the same genetic abnormality vary in their aggressiveness based on their cellular origin. They found that the cancer inducing alteration is particularly devastating if it occurs in early hematopoietic stem cells expressing certain genes involved in cell migration and tissue invasion. These findings should now make it possible to classify patients into more clearly defined groups, to adapt treatment, and hopefully also to develop personalized therapeutic strategies for the future.
- New treatment approaches to improve peritoneal dialysis
One of the main functions of the kidneys is to filter metabolic products out of the blood. If the kidneys are no longer able to do this, the blood has to be artificially purified and drained of excess fluid. This is the purpose of dialysis. Now researchers are seeking new, better therapeutic approaches for those patients on dialysis.
- Hidden values of open ocean
A team of scientists has for the first time attached a dollar value to several of the leading 'ecosystem services' -- or natural benefits -- provided by the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean, an immense region stretching west from the west coasts of North and South America.
- Analysis of media reporting reveals new information about snakebites and how and when they occur
A new study analyzed media reports of snakebites in the United States. Investigators found that media coverage detailed victim circumstances better than current quantitative data, and that the majority of snakebites may actually be 'legitimate,' meaning they occur by surprise, without intentional contact, in a natural setting.
- Analysis of genetic repeats suggests role for DNA instability in schizophrenia
An international research team has revealed extensive genetic variation in patients with schizophrenia. Significantly more copy number variations (CNVs) of genomic DNA were detected in patients than in controls. Patients also showed different disease severity, which appears associated with the CNVs' number and variable expressivity. These findings enabled the researchers to propose a genetic model of schizophrenia in which genomic instability underlies disease development.
- New cancer immunotherapy drugs linked to arthritis in some patients
Case reports on 13 cancer patients suggest that a small number of cancer patients taking the immunotherapy drugs ipilimumab and nivolumab may be at some higher-than-normal risk of developing autoimmune joint and tissue diseases, including inflammatory arthritis, according to a preliminary study.
- Should I stay or should I go?
Researchers have been studying evacuation data and have published two new papers that may help to improve prediction models used by emergency planners, leading to more efficient evacuations and possibly saving lives.
- How well do facial recognition algorithms cope with a million strangers?
Computer scientists and engineers have launched the 'MegaFace Challenge,' the world's first competition aimed at evaluating and improving the performance of face recognition algorithms at the million person scale.
- Detailed plans for largest neutrino telescope in the world
A deep-sea array will soak up signals from neutrinos traveling through the cosmos to study the evolution of the universe and to discover more about the fundamental properties of these prized sub-atomic particles.
- People with low birthweight due to genetic factors are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes
A genetically lowered birthweight increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, new research shows. Since low birthweight represents restricted intrauterine growth (fetal growth), it cannot be ruled out that it is in fact the risk factors for this restricted growth that are causing the low birthweight and in turn causing the type 2 diabetes to develop. Risk factors for restricted intrauterine growth include malnutrition, anemia, infections and placental insufficiency.
- Longevity, human health may be linked to a muscle cell enzyme
Exercise and fasting do not change the location of a key enzyme involved in energy production, a study has found.
- Coal to solar: Retraining the energy workforce
As the solar industry booms, coal workers have the opportunity to pursue new work. A new study looks at what it takes to retrain underground skills for sunnier prospects.
- Arsenic accumulates in the nuclei of plants' cells
Toxic arsenic initially accumulates in the nuclei of plants' cells. This has been revealed by an X-ray examination of the aquatic plant rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) using DESY's X-ray source PETRA III. Even at comparatively low concentrations, the arsenic also floods the vacuole, a liquid-filled cavity which takes up most of the cell. The scientists report their findings in the Journal of Experimental Botany.
- Faster detection of pathogens in the lungs
What used to take several weeks is now possible in two days: thanks to new molecular-based methods, mycobacterial pathogens that cause pulmonary infections or tuberculosis can now be detected much more quickly. Time-consuming bacteria cultures no longer need to be taken from the patient samples, meaning that a suitable therapy can be started quickly.
- Female blue tits sing in the face of danger
Birdsong has long been associated with courtship or competitive behavior. And males were considered to be more active. Now a research team shows that female singing is much more common. They demonstrated for the first time a connection between the song of female blue tits and the presence of a predator. This singing appears to be about their own defense.
- Molecular scissors help evolutionary investigation
Scientists have detected an important mechanism in the evolution of plant genomes: using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism, they studied the formation of tandem repeat DNA sequences and found out that these sequences form if both DNA strands are broken at a significant distance from each other. For their experiments, the scientists used CRISPR/Cas system, working like a 'pair of molecular scissors.'
- Energy from sunlight: Further steps towards artificial photosynthesis
Chemists have come one step closer to generating energy from sunlight: for the first time, they were able to reproduce one of the crucial phases of natural photosynthesis with artificial molecules.
- 3-dimensional prostate model created
A team of researchers are developing a three-dimensional model for prostate cancer research based on cryogels. The model will be used to reproduce natural processes and above all to examine the development and the progression of tumors.
- 3-D-printed kidney helps doctors save woman's organ during complicated tumor removal
Doctors and scientists in one case printed and used a 3-D kidney to help save a patient's organ during a complicated tumor-removal procedural.
- Small brain, astounding performance: How elephantnose fish switch between electrical, visual sense
The elephantnose fish explores objects in its surroundings by using its eyes or its electrical sense -- sometimes both together. Zoologists have now found out how complex the processing of these sensory impressions is. With its tiny brain, the fish achieves performance comparable to that of humans or mammals.
- 'Amazing protein diversity' is discovered in the maize plant
New research establishes the amazing diversity of maize -- specifically the variety of proteins that the plant's genes can generate. The finding has great import for agriculture, as maize is one of the world's top-three staple foods, along with rice and wheat accounting for two-thirds of world food consumption.
- Use of non-fit messaging may improve patient choices
When it comes to helping patients make the best choices for themselves, sometimes you have to challenge their usual way of dealing with the world, according to new research.
- Siberian larch forests are still linked to the ice age
The Siberian permafrost regions include those areas of the Earth, which heat up very quickly in the course of climate change. Nevertheless, biologists are currently observing only a minimal response in forest composition.
Also try Chemistry News @ chemicalblogs.com|
Want to make the news? Start a Chemical Blog.