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- Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter views Schiaparelli landing site
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has identified new markings on the surface of the Red Planet that are believed to be related to ESA's ExoMars Schiaparelli entry, descent and landing technology demonstrator module.
- Inflammation triggers unsustainable immune response to chronic viral infection
Scientists have discovered a fundamental new mechanism explaining the inadequate immune defense against chronic viral infection. These results may open up new avenues for vaccine development, say researchers.
- Climate change impairs survival instincts of fish and can make them swim towards predators
Fish farms may hold the key to studying the impact of rising carbon dioxide on marine life, and help researchers understand if fish could adapt to climate change.
- Analytics developed to predict poll trends
As the countdown continues to the Presidential election, new analytical tools promise a quicker and remarkably accurate method of predicting election trends with Twitter.
- New record for fusion: Giant leap in pursuit of clean energy
Scientists and engineers recently made a leap forward in the pursuit of clean energy. The team set a new world record for plasma pressure in an Alcator C-Mod tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. Plasma pressure is the key ingredient to producing energy from nuclear fusion, and MIT's new result achieves over 2 atmospheres of pressure for the first time.
- Would people be happier (and healthier) if we could make broccoli taste like chocolate?
At the second annual International Society of Neurogastronomy Symposium, scientists, doctors, chefs and food scientists discuss flavor perception and quality of life for people who can't enjoy food because of their injury or illness.
- Botanist leads petition to give Venus Flytrap endangered species protection
American ecologists have played a key role in a petition filed with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Friday seeking emergency Endangered Species Act protection for the Venus flytrap.
- Non-metal catalyst splits hydrogen molecule
Hydrogen (H2) is an extremely simple molecule and yet a valuable raw material which as a result of the development of sophisticated catalysts is becoming more and more important. In industry and commerce, applications range from food and fertilizer manufacture to crude oil cracking to utilization as an energy source in fuel cells. A challenge lies in splitting the strong H-H bond under mild conditions. Chemists have now developed a new catalyst for the activation of hydrogen by introducing boron atoms into a common organic molecule.
- The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, or is it?
Five years ago, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to three astronomers for their discovery that the universe is expanding at an accelerating pace. Their conclusions were based on analysis of Type Ia supernovae -- the spectacular thermonuclear explosion of dying stars -- picked up by the Hubble space telescope and large ground-based telescopes. It led to the widespread acceptance of the idea that the universe is dominated by a mysterious substance named 'dark energy' that drives this accelerating expansion. Now, a team of scientists has cast doubt on this standard cosmological concept. The evidence for acceleration may be flimsier than previously thought, they say, with the data being consistent with a constant rate of expansion.
- The importance of the amount of physical activity on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes
New research reveals the importance of both the amount and timing of physical activity in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as aiding the management of the disease in existing T2D patients.
- When quantum scale affects the way atoms emit and absorb particles of light
In 1937, US physicist Isidor Rabi introduced a simple model to describe how atoms emit and absorb particles of light. Until now, this model had still not been completely explained. In a recent article, physicists have for the first time used an exact numerical technique: the quantum Monte Carlo technique, which was designed to explain the photon absorption and emission phenomenon.
- Understanding bacteria's slimy fortresses
For the first time, scientists have revealed the mechanics of how bacteria build up slimy masses, called biofilms, cell by cell. When encased in biofilms in the human body, bacteria are a thousand times less susceptible to antibiotics, making certain infections, such as pneumonia, difficult to treat and potentially lethal. In a new study, engineers and biologists tracked a single bacterial cell as it grew into a mature biofilm of 10,000 cells with an ordered architecture. The findings should help scientists learn more about bacterial behavior and open up new ways of attacking biofilms with drugs.
- How to tune thermal conductivity of 2D materials
Researchers have found an unexpected way to control the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2-D) materials, which will allow electronics designers to dissipate heat in electronic devices that use these materials.
- Same day return to play after concussion still common among youth athletes
Concussion guidelines published over the past decade -- and laws in all states -- now discourage youth athletes from returning to play if they display any signs of concussion after an injury. However, new research confirms athletes often head back into the game on the same day.
- More time on digital devices means kids less likely to finish homework
In findings that will not surprise the parents of any school-aged child, new research finds that the more time children spend using digital devices, the less likely they are to finish their homework.
- Visits to pediatric emergency departments for headache pain in children are on the rise
There is a growing body of evidence that pediatric emergency departments are seeing a steady increase in the number of children presenting with headaches.
- Adverse events affect children's development, physical health and biology
It's known that adverse childhood experiences carry over into adult life, but a new study is focusing on the effect of these experiences in the childhood years.
- Most adults surveyed don't know e-cigarette use deposits nicotine on indoor surfaces
Most U.S. adults surveyed in 2015 agree that e-cigarette use should not be allowed in places where smoking is prohibited. Yet one-third of respondents allow use of the devices within their home, and fewer than half said they knew that exhaled e-cigarette vapors contain nicotine that deposits on indoor surfaces.
- Potential harms of parents' online posts about children
What parents share with others about their children in today's digital age presents new and often unanticipated risks.
- Head lice outbreaks in camp settings cause substantial burden on kids, staff
New research finds that lice can be the end of a happy summer for many kids at sleepaway camp.
- Youth motocross racing injuries severe despite required safety gear
A study at a Pennsylvania trauma center found competitive youth motocross athletes suffer potentially life-threatening injuries despite wearing helmets and other safety gear required on the sport's popular rough-terrain race courses.
- New way to attack gastro bug
Researchers have discovered a potential way to create an antimicrobial drug that would stop one of the world’s most prevalent foodborne bugs causing gastroenteritis in humans.
- New compound shows promise in treating multiple human cancers
A newly discovered compound has been shown by researchers to block a protein that is essential for the sustained growth of up to a quarter of all cancers.
- From ancient fossils to future cars
Engineers are developing cheap, energy-efficient lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles from silicon in diatomaceous earth. The research could lead to the development of ultra-high capacity lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles and portable electronics.
- New special-purpose computer may someday save us billions
The processing power of standard computers is likely to reach its maximum in the next 10 to 25 years. Even at this maximum power, traditional computers won't be able to handle a particular class of problem that involves combining variables to come up with many possible answers, and looking for the best solution. Now, an entirely new type of computer that blends optical and electrical processing could get around this impending processing constraint and solve those problems. If it can be scaled up, this non-traditional computer could save costs by finding more optimal solutions to problems that have an incredibly high number of possible solutions.
- Study links changes in collagen to worse pancreatic cancer prognosis
The first evidence linking a disturbance of the most common protein in the body with a poor outcome in pancreatic cancer has been uncovered by a team of researchers.
- New smart gloves to monitor Parkinson's disease patients
Prescribing a medication plan for a patient with Parkinson’s disease is a big challenge for doctors, but now a biomedical engineering professor and his students are making great strides in solving that problem with their groundbreaking research.
- Discrimination Based on Weight Doubles Health Risks
How society treats overweight people makes health matters worse, a new study has found. Among the findings, authors note that people who experience weight discrimination often shun social interaction and skip doctor visits.
- Physicists use lasers to capture first snapshots of rapid chemical bonds breaking
An international team has used a molecule's own electrons to scatter the molecule — a process called mid-infrared laser-induced electron diffraction, or LIED — and capture snapshots of acetylene as it is breaking apart.
- Mortality and cardiovascular disease: You don't have to be an Olympic athlete to reduce the many risk factors
A new study shows that even low physical fitness, up to 20% below the average for healthy people, is sufficient to produce a preventive effect on most of the risk factors that affect people with cardiovascular disease.
- Archaeologists reveal new findings on the history of the early-Islamic caliphate palace Khirbat al-Minya
New excavations are underway to investigate the use of the palace Khirbat Al-Minya following the severe earthquake of 749 AD. New findings show that the building lost its palatial function as a result of the earthquake and was subsequently only used by craftsmen, traders, and sugar cane farmers.
- Lonely 'lefty' snail seeks mate for love, and genetic study
Scientists are hoping to study the genetics of an ultra-rare garden snail are asking the public for its help in finding the lonely mollusc a mate. The snail’s unique qualities make it a one in a million find - but also impossible for it to mate with its more common counterparts. At first glance, the brown garden snail may look like any other but closer inspection of the snail’s shell reveals exactly why this creature is so special. While the shells of this common species spiral in a right-handed, clockwise direction – known as dextral – this snail is a sinistral, with a left-handed anti-clockwise spiralling shell. In essence, the ‘lefty’ snail is a mirror image of its other shell-dwelling friends.
- Oldest known planet-forming disk discovered
A group of citizen scientists and professional astronomers joined forces to discover an unusual hunting ground for exoplanets. They found a star surrounded by the oldest known circumstellar disk -- a primordial ring of gas and dust that orbits around a young star and from which planets can form as the material collides and aggregates.
- Study suggests farm traffic vehicle accidents could be reduced by more than half
Traffic accidents involving farm vehicles in the Midwest would decrease by more than 50 percent if state policies required more lighting and reflection on those vehicles, new research has found.
- Sixty percent of Americans with diabetes skip annual sight-saving exams
People with diabetes are at increased risk of developing serious eye diseases, yet most do not have sight-saving annual eye exams, according to a large study.
- Pediatricians update digital media recommendations for kids
New AAP guidelines say parents not only need to pay attention to the amount of time children spend on digital media -- but also how, when and where they use it.
- Nanosciences: Genes on the rack
A novel nanotool has been developed that provides an easy means of characterizing the mechanical properties of biomolecules.
- Researchers solve the problem of the dimensions of space-time in theories relating to the Large Hadron Collider
Researchers propose an approach to the experimental data generated by the Large Hadron Collider that solves the infinity problem without breaching the four dimensions of space-time.
- Nanoantenna lighting-rod effect produces fast optical switches
A fast nanoscale optical transistor has been created using gold nanoantenna assisted phase transition. The work opens up new directions in antenna-assisted switches and optical memory.
- How does friendly fire happen in the pancreas?
In type 1 diabetes, the body attacks its own insulin-producing cells. Scientists have now reported on a mechanism used by the immune system to prepare for this attack. They were able to inhibit this process through targeted intervention and are now hoping this will lead to new possibilities for treatment.
- Ultrasensitive sensors ensure optimum sight conditions
The automotive industry research is strongly focused on technology that enables automated driving. A new sensor system should help increase passenger safety, say researchers.
- New antireflective coating reduces stray light and reflections
Transparent plastic optical lenses can be manufactured cheaply and in any shape. However, a downside is that they reflect light just as much as glass does. Researchers are exhibiting a new type of antireflective coating that significantly reduces stray light and reflections from plastic lenses. Not only does this improve the performance of cameras and headlights, it’s also good news for virtual reality technologies.
- Paving the road to drug discovery
There are many disadvantages to using human cells in the initial stages of creating a new therapy. Scientists often have to test a large number of compounds in order to find one that is effective against a particular target. Human cells are costly to take care of and require a lot of time and specific conditions in order to grow. Now researchers say that fission yeast may be used to find the next cancer cure.
- Basic structure of ultrasound power supply, communication
Unlike drugs, active implants such as electroceuticals act locally, have fewer side effects and function directly through electrical signals, much like the body itself. Now researchers present a new technology platform that can power active implants wirelessly via ultrasound. The experts are targeting widespread diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes and Parkinson’s.
- Learning from model experiments
What students in school learn from a model experiment depends on how similar the model substances look to the originals, a new study has found.
- Windsurfing swans: An overlooked phenomenon
It is well-known that birds can fly, swim and walk, but now there is scientific evidence that birds also can windsurf. Researchers report that the Mute swan occasionally uses the wings as sails when moving quickly on water surfaces.
- A moving story of FHL2 and forces
Researchers have revealed the molecular events leading to the regulation of cell growth and proliferation in response to stiffness of the extracellular matrix that surrounds them.
- Scientists show how plants turn a 'light switch' on and off
Scientists have uncovered the mechanisms through which cryptochrome 2 -- a key photoreceptor that allows plants to respond to blue light -- is switched on and off, allowing plants to remain responsive to light.
- 60 year old Septoria mystery solved
A new paper explains why plant breeders have found it difficult to produce wheat varieties which combine high yield and good resistance to Septoria, a disease in wheat which can cut yield losses by up to 50%. It traces the problem back to decisions made nearly sixty years ago.
- New nanomedicine approach aims to improve HIV drug therapies
New research aims to improve the administration and availability of drug therapies to HIV patients through the use of nanotechnology.
- First atomic-level image of the human 'marijuana receptor' unveiled
In a discovery that advances the understanding of how marijuana works in the human body, an international group of scientists has, for the first time, created a three-dimensional atomic-level image of the molecular structure activated by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active chemical in marijuana.
- Report provides options for organic soybean growers
Although soybeans are one of the most widely grown crops in the U.S., few soybean farmers are using organic practices. A new report details organic products and practices to combat pathogens and insect pests. New growers may be motivated by a strong profit margin for organically produced soybeans.
- TB tricks the body's immune system to allow it to spread
Tuberculosis (TB) tricks the immune system into attacking the body’s lung tissue so the bacteria are allowed to spread to other people, new research. The concept proposes that current ideas about how tuberculosis develops in patients may be incomplete and that, in fact, infection causes autoimmunity, where the immune system reacts incorrectly to its own tissue.
- CDC recommends only two HPV shots for younger adolescents
The U.S. CDC is recommending that 11- to 12-year-olds receive two doses of HPV vaccine at least six months apart rather than the previously recommended three doses to protect against cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infections.
- Smartphones alone not the smart choice for teen weight control, study finds
Teens use smartphones successfully to do almost anything: learn new skills, communicate with friends, do research and catch Pokémon. But a new study finds smartphones aren't as useful for helping teens maintain weight loss.
- Ancient proteins shown to control plant growth
An international team of life scientists reports the discovery of mechanisms regulating plant growth that could provide new insights into how the mammalian biological clock affects human health.
- New testing method allows more effective diagnosis of genetically based high cholesterol
A new genetic testing method called LipidSeq can identify a genetic basis for high-cholesterol in almost 70 per cent of a targeted patient population. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, researchers were able to pinpoint specific areas of a person's DNA to more effectively diagnose genetic forms of high-cholesterol, which markedly increase risk for heart attack and stroke.
- New evolutionary finding: Species take different genetic paths to reach same trait
Biologists have been contemplating evolutionary change since Charles Darwin first explained it. Using modern molecular tools and fieldwork, biologists have demonstrated for the first time that different species can take different genetic paths to develop the same trait.
- New Cretaceous dinosaur from Queensland
Researchers have announced the naming of Savannasaurus elliottorum, a new genus and species of dinosaur from western Queensland, Australia. The bones come from the Winton Formation, a geological deposit approximately 95 million years old. Savannasaurus was a medium-sized titanosaur, approximately half the length of a basketball court, with a long neck and a relatively short tail.
- Earliest evidence in fossil record for right-handedness
Perhaps the bias against left-handers dates back much further than we thought. By examining striations on teeth of a Homo habilis fossil, researchers have found the earliest evidence for right-handedness in the fossil record dating back 1.8 million years.