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Chemical News is your source of fresh chemistry data and insights. Chemical news are aggregated from multiple chemistry sources and presented here for convenient consumption.
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Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
  • New test scans all genes simultaneously to identify single mutation causing child's rare genetic disease
    Sequencing the DNA of children with mystery genetic disorders produced a definitive diagnosis in 40 percent of one hospital’s most complex cases -- a quantum leap from the field’s 5-percent success rate 20 years ago.
  • Women driven by status, wealth rather than wanting babies, study suggests
    Women are more driven to seek wealth and status than they are to reproduce, a new study suggests. The research says although low fertility may seem to go against traditional ideas about evolutionary success, a woman will delay and reduce her fertility if it brings her opportunities for higher status. The findings are based on interviews with 9,000 women in Mongolia, a country that underwent a sudden transition from a Soviet-style state to mass privatization.
  • Scale of declines of UK migratory birds wintering in Africa revealed
    The migration of millions of birds across the face of the planet is one of nature's greatest annual events. Every spring some species move in one direction, while every autumn those same species move in the opposite one, very often linking continents. Although these migration patterns are as regular as the seasons, monitoring is revealing that, for some species, fewer birds are making the journey each season as the populations of these birds, including species nesting in the UK, are declining rapidly.
  • YouTube as peer support for severe mental illness
    People with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder use a popular social media website like YouTube to provide and receive naturally occurring peer support, researchers report.
  • Australian volcanic mystery explained
    Scientists have solved a long-standing mystery surrounding Australia's only active volcanic area. The volcanism springs from a unique interaction between the continent's movement north and local variations in its thickness.
  • Climate change alters cast of winter birds
    Over the past two decades, the resident communities of birds that attend eastern North America’s backyard bird feeders in winter have quietly been remade, most likely as a result of a warming climate.
  • Action video games bolster sensorimotor skills, study finds
    People who play action video games such as Call of Duty or Assassin's Creed seem to learn a new sensorimotor skill more quickly than non-gamers do, psychology researchers have found.
  • Superconducting circuits, simplified
    New circuit design could unlock the power of experimental superconducting computer chips.
  • Using feminist theory to understand male rape
    Decades of feminist research have framed rape and sexual assault as a ‘women’s issue’, leaving little room for the experiences of male victims. But a new study suggests that feminist theory, with its focus on the gendered nature of rape, can also help us understand the stigmas, social constructions and realities associated with male rape.
  • Atomic trigger shatters mystery of how glass deforms
    A new study has cracked one mystery of glass to shed light on the mechanism that triggers its deformation before shattering. Glass hangs in a metastable state in which the energy of the system is higher than the lowest-energy state the system could assume, a crystalline state. But its state is stable enough at room temperature to last a human lifetime.
  • How the brain leads us to believe we have sharp vision
    We assume that we can see the world around us in sharp detail. In fact, our eyes can only process a fraction of our surroundings precisely. In a series of experiments, psychologists have been investigating how the brain fools us into believing that we see in sharp detail.
  • Scientific breakthrough will help design antibiotics of the future
    Computer simulations have been used to show how bacteria are able to destroy antibiotics -- a breakthrough which will help develop drugs which can effectively tackle infections in the future.
  • Blinded by non-science: Trivial scientific information increases trust in products
    Beware of trivial graphs and formulas, warns new research. The study found trivial graphs or formulas accompanying medical information can lead consumers to believe products are more effective.
  • 'Red effect' sparks interest in female monkeys
    Recent studies showed that the color red tends increase our attraction toward others, feelings of jealousy, and even reaction times. Now, new research shows that female monkeys also respond to the color red, suggesting that biology, rather than our culture, may play the fundamental role in our “red” reactions.
  • New data about endangered marsh harrier distribution in Europe
    The use of ringing recoveries -- a conventional method used to study bird migration -- in combination with more modern techniques such as species distribution modelling and stable isotope analysis is useful to understand better bird distribution patterns and origin considering place and time of the year.
  • Improving bladder function among people with spinal cord injuries
    New research may lead to dramatically fewer bladder infections following spinal cord injuries and other traumatic injuries -- infections that can cause kidney damage, and even death, scientists report.
  • Physicists sound warning to 'nail beauty fanatics'
    The daily trimming of fingernails and toenails to make them more aesthetically pleasing could be detrimental and potentially lead to serious nail conditions.
  • Cystic Fibrosis lung infection: Scientists open black box on bacterial growth
    Researchers have shown for the first time how bacteria can grow directly in the lungs of Cystic fibrosis patients, giving them the opportunity to get tremendous insights into bacteria behavior and growth in chronic infections.
  • Divide and conquer: Novel trick helps rare pathogen infect healthy people
    New research into a rare pathogen has shown how a unique evolutionary trait allows it to infect even the healthiest of hosts through a smart solution to the body's immune response against it, scientists report.
  • Plastic nanoparticles also harm freshwater organisms
    Organisms can be negatively affected by plastic nanoparticles, not just in the seas and oceans but in freshwater bodies too. These particles slow the growth of algae, cause deformities in water fleas and impede communication between small organisms and fish.
  • High-speed evolution in the lab: Geneticists evaluate cost-effective genome analysis
    Life implies change. And this holds true for genes as well. Organisms require a flexible genome in order to adapt to changes in the local environment. Researchers want to know why individuals differ from each other and how these differences are encoded in the DNA. In two review papers, they discuss why DNA sequencing of entire groups can be an efficient and cost-effective way to answer these questions. 
  • Emergency aid for overdoses
    Every minute counts in the event of an overdose. Now, researchers have developed an agent to filter out toxins from the body more quickly and efficiently. It can also be used for dialysis in patients suffering from hepatic failure.
  • Tailored 'activity coaching' by smartphone
    Today’s smartphone user can obtain a lot of data about his or her health, thanks to built-in or separate sensors. Researchers now take this health monitoring to a higher level. Using the system he developed, the smartphone also acts as an ‘activity coach’: it advices the user to walk or take a rest. In what way the user wants to be addressed, is typically something the system learns by itself.
  • Presence of enzyme may worsen effects of spinal cord injury and impair long-term recovery
    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with few treatment options. Studies show that damage to the barrier separating blood from the spinal cord can contribute to the neurologic deficits that arise secondary to the initial trauma. Through a series of experiments, researchers suggest that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) plays a pivotal role in disruption of the brain/spinal cord barrier (BSCB), cell death, and functional deficits after SCI. This link also presents new therapeutic possibilities.
  • First step: From human cells to tissue-engineered esophagus
    In a first step toward future human therapies, researchers have shown that esophageal tissue can be grown in vivo from both human and mouse cells.
  • Explosion first evidence of a hydrogen-deficient supernova progenitor
    A new model is the first characterization of the progenitor for a hydrogen-deficient supernova. The model predicts that a bright hot star, which is the binary companion to an exploding object, remains after the explosion.Their findings have important implications for the evolution of massive stars.
  • NASA begins sixth year of airborne Antarctic ice change study
    NASA is carrying out its sixth consecutive year of Operation IceBridge research flights over Antarctica to study changes in the continent's ice sheet, glaciers and sea ice. This year's airborne campaign, which began its first flight Thursday morning, will revisit a section of the Antarctic ice sheet that recently was found to be in irreversible decline.
  • Cellular self-destruct program has deep roots throughout evolution
    In what seems like a counter-intuitive move against survival, within animals, some cells are fated to die from the triggering of an elaborate cell death program, known as apoptosis. Now, researchers have honed in on understanding the evolution of caspase-8, a key cell death initiator molecule that was first identified in humans.
  • Blood test helps predict relapse in patients with autoimmune disease affecting the kidneys
    Among patients with an autoimmune disease called ANCA-associated vasculitis, autoantibody increases were linked with an 11-fold increased risk of relapse in patients whose kidneys were affected, a study concludes. Among patients without kidney involvement, such increases were associated only weakly with relapses.
  • NASA spacecraft provides new information about sun's atmosphere
    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) has provided scientists with five new findings into how the sun's atmosphere, or corona, is heated far hotter than its surface, what causes the sun's constant outflow of particles called the solar wind, and what mechanisms accelerate particles that power solar flares.
  • First detailed map of aboveground forest carbon stocks in Mexico unveiled
    The first detailed map of aboveground forest carbon stocks of Mexico has been released by researchers. This carbon stock inventory is very valuable for Mexico, as one of the first tropical nations to voluntarily pledge to mitigation actions within the context of the United Nation's Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation program.
  • How a molecular Superman protects genome from damage
    A new role for the RNAi protein Dicer has been found in preserving genomic stability. Researchers discovered that Dicer helps prevent collisions during DNA replication by freeing transcription machinery from active genes. Without Dicer function, transcription and replication machinery collide, leading to DNA damage and massive changes across the genome -- changes that are associated with aging and cancer.
  • Tiny 'nanoflares' might heat the Sun's corona
    Why is the Sun's million-degree corona, or outermost atmosphere, so much hotter than the Sun's surface? This question has baffled astronomers for decades. Today, a team led by Paola Testa is presenting new clues to the mystery of coronal heating. The team finds that miniature solar flares called 'nanoflares' -- and the speedy electrons they produce -- might partly be the source of that heat, at least in some of the hottest parts of the Sun's corona.
  • Cells' powerhouses were once energy parasites: Study upends current theories of how mitochondria began
    Parasitic bacteria were the first cousins of the mitochondria that power cells in animals and plants -- and first acted as energy parasites in those cells before becoming beneficial, according to a new study.
  • Major benefits for students who attend live theater, study finds
    Field trips to live theater enhance literary knowledge, tolerance, and empathy among students, according to a study. The research team found that reading and watching movies of Hamlet and A Christmas Carol could not account for the increase in knowledge experienced by students who attended live performances of the plays. Students who attended live performances of the play also scored higher on the study's tolerance measure than the control group by a moderately large margin and were better able to recognize and appreciate what other people think and feel.
  • Sugared soda consumption, cell aging associated in new study
    Sugar-sweetened soda consumption might promote disease independently from its role in obesity, according to UC San Francisco researchers who found in a new study that drinking sugary drinks was associated with cell aging.
  • I have to walk how many miles to burn off this soda?
    Adolescents who saw printed signs explaining the number of miles they would need to walk to burn off the calories in a sugary drink were more likely to leave the store with a lower calorie beverage, a healthier beverage or a smaller size beverage, according to new research.
  • Journey to the center of the Earth: Geochemist uses helium and lead isotopes to gain insight into makeup of planet’s deep interior
    A geochemist studying Samoan volcanoes has found evidence of the planet's early formation still trapped inside Earth. Known as hotspots, volcanic island chains such as Samoa can ancient primordial signatures from the early solar system that have somehow survived billions of years.
  • Modeling tumor dormancy: What makes a tumor switch from dormant to malignant?
    A new computational model may help illuminate the conditions surrounding tumor dormancy and the switch to a malignant state. The so-called cellular automaton model simulated various scenarios of tumor growth leading to tumor suppression, dormancy or proliferation.
  • 'Paradigm shift' in understanding of potassium channels
    A new discovery relating to one of the most common processes in human cells is being described as a 'paradigm shift' in understanding. Researchers have observed ion permeation in potassium channels which does not follow previously predicted pathways.
  • Loss of big predators could leave herbivores in a thorny situation
    Global declines in carnivore populations could embolden plant eaters to increasingly dine on succulent vegetation, driving losses in plant and tree biodiversity, according to new research published in Science.
  • Scientists find 'hidden brain signatures' of consciousness in vegetative state patients
    Scientists in Cambridge have found hidden signatures in the brains of people in a vegetative state, which point to networks that could support consciousness even when a patient appears to be unconscious and unresponsive. The study could help doctors identify patients who are aware despite being unable to communicate.
  • Protons hog the momentum in neutron-rich nuclei
    Protons and neutrons that have briefly paired up in the nucleus have higher-average momentum, leaving less for non-paired nucleons. Researchers have now shown for the first time that this phenomenon exists in nuclei heavier than carbon, including aluminum, iron and lead and also surprisingly allows a greater fraction of protons than neutrons to have high momentum in these neutron-rich nuclei, contrary to long-accepted theories and with implications for ultra-cold atomic gas systems and neutron stars.
  • Cosmic jets of young stars formed by magnetic fields
    Astrophysical jets are counted among our universe's most spectacular phenomena: From the centers of black holes, quasars, or protostars, these rays of matter sometimes protrude several light years into space. Now, for the first time ever, an international team of researchers has successfully tested a new model that explains how magnetic fields form these emissions in young stars.
  • Myelin vital for learning new practical skills
    New evidence of myelin's essential role in learning and retaining new practical skills, such as playing a musical instrument, has been uncovered by research. Myelin is a fatty substance produced by the brain and spinal cord into early adulthood as it is needed for many developmental processes, and although earlier studies of human white matter hinted at its involvement in skill learning, this is the first time it has been confirmed experimentally.
  • New front in war on Alzheimer's, other protein-linked brain diseases
    Proteins must fold into the right 3-D structure to work, and the body produces many chaperone molecules to refold misfolded proteins. Heat shock boosts the number of these chaperones. Research now shows that, equally important, heat shock also boosts a protein that stabilizes actin, the building block of the cytoskeleton. This opens new avenues for therapies to prevent protein misfolding and its associated diseases -- Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's.
  • Wobbling of a Saturn moon hints at what lies beneath
    Using instruments aboard the Cassini spacecraft to measure the wobbles of Mimas, the closest of Saturn's regular moons, an astronomer has inferred that this small moon's icy surface cloaks either a rugby ball-shaped rocky core or a sloshing sub-surface ocean.
  • To wilt or not to wilt: MicroRNAs determine tomato susceptibility to Fusarium fungus
    Plant breeders have long identified and cultivated disease-resistant varieties. A new study reveals the molecular basis for resistance and susceptibility to a common fungus that causes wilt in susceptible tomato plants.
  • Staph 'gangs' share nutrients during infection
    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can share resources to cause chronic infections, investigators have discovered. Like the individual members of a gang who might be relatively harmless alone, they turn deadly when they get together with their 'friends.' The findings shed light on a long-standing question in infectious diseases and may inform new treatment strategies.
  • Personalized ovarian cancer vaccines developed
    New genomic analysis techniques were used by researchers to identify specific protein sequences, called epitopes, that the immune system can use to identify cancer cells. Their key insight was that the most effective epitopes to include in a personalized vaccine are not those that react most strongly with the immune system, but rather the epitopes that differ most from the host's normal tissue.
  • Hubble finds extremely distant galaxy through cosmic magnifying glass
    Using the Hubble Space Telescope and the lensing power of giant galaxy cluster Abell 2744, astronomers may have made the most reliable distance measurement yet of an object that existed in the very early universe. The galaxy, estimated to be over 13 billion light-years away, is one of the farthest, faintest, and smallest galaxies ever seen.
  • Diabetic men with low testosterone run higher risk of developing atherosclerosis
    Men who have low testosterone and Type 2 diabetes face a greater risk of developing atherosclerosis – a condition where plaque builds up in the arteries – than men who have diabetes and normal testosterone levels, according to a new study.
  • Resveratrol boosts spinal bone density in men with metabolic syndrome
    Resveratrol, a natural compound found in red wine and grapes, increased spinal bone density in men with metabolic syndrome and could hold promise as a treatment for osteoporosis, according to a new study.
  • Engineers find a way to win in laser performance by losing
    Engineers have shown a new way to reverse or eliminate loss by, ironically, adding loss to a laser system to actually reap energy gains. To help laser systems overcome loss, operators often pump the system with an overabundance of photons, or light packets, to achieve optical gain. But now engineers have shown a new way to reverse or eliminate such loss by, ironically, adding loss to a laser system to actually reap energy gains. In other words, they've invented a way to win by losing.
  • Simple test may predict surgical wound healing complications
    A simple test called transcutaneous oximetry may be able to predict which patients with soft tissue sarcomas will experience complications while healing from surgery, potentially enabling surgeons to take extra precautions, a study has found.
  • Mysterious Midcontinent Rift is a geological hybrid
    Geologists have a new explanation for the formation of the Midcontinent Rift, an ancient 2,000-mile-long underground crack that starts in Lake Superior and runs south. The rift is a geological hybrid, having formed in three stages: it started as an enormous narrow crack in the Earth's crust; that space then filled with an unusually large amount of volcanic rock; and, finally, the igneous rocks were forced to the surface, forming some of the Upper Midwest's beautiful scenery.
  • Cadavers beat computers for learning anatomy
    Despite the growing popularity of using computer simulation to help teach college anatomy, students learn much better through the traditional use of human cadavers, according to new research.
  • Survey: Texans share lessons learned as second enrollment period of ACA health insurance nears
    While most Texans used healthcare.gov earlier this year to get information or to enroll in a health insurance plan under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), larger percentages of Texans found talking to the call center or a navigator was the most helpful. Those are just some of the lessons learned.
  • First-ever patient care guidelines in prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD
    Leading lung health organizations release the first-ever evidence-based patient care guidelines in prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD.
  • Dispelling a misconception about Mg-ion batteries
    Researchers used supercomputer simulations to dispel a popular misconception about magnesium-ion batteries that should help advance the development of multivalent ion battery technology.
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