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Chemical News is your source of fresh chemistry data and insights. Chemical news are aggregated from multiple chemistry sources and presented here for convenient consumption.
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  • How can I tell if they're lying?
    Sarcasm, white lies and teasing can be difficult to identify for those with certain disorders. For those who suffer from diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, or neurodevelopmental conditions such as Autism spectrum disorder, identifying white lies may be even harder. But new video inventory may help, say researchers.
  • Don't forget plankton in climate change models, says study
    Globally, phytoplankton absorb as much carbon dioxide as tropical rainforests and so understanding the way they respond to a warming climate is crucial, say scientists.
  • Cognitive behavior therapy can help overcome fear of the dentist
    Cognitive behavioral therapy could help many people with a dental phobia overcome their fear of visiting the dentist and enable them to receive dental treatment without the need to be sedated, according to a new study.
  • White matter damage caused by 'skunk-like' cannabis, study shows
    Smoking high potency 'skunk-like' cannabis can damage a crucial part of the brain responsible for communication between the two brain hemispheres, according to a new study.
  • Personally tailored diabetes care reduces mortality in women, but not men, study suggests
    A follow-up study to assess the effects of personally tailored diabetes care in general practice has revealed that such care reduces mortality (both all-cause and diabetes-related), in women, but not men.
  • Extreme heatwaves may hit Europe in the short term
    Regional climate projections for the two coming decades (2021-2040) suggest enhanced probability of heatwaves anywhere in Europe, which would be comparable or greater than the Russian heatwave in 2010 - the worst since 1950 - according to a new article. Using an improved heatwave index, the article also ranks the 10 record-breaking heatwaves that have struck the continent in the last 65 years.
  • Instrument to measure brand embarrassment developed by economists
    Whether people wear T-shirts with a big logo of a brand depends on a person's "brand embarrassment tendency" (BET). Embarrassment is an intense, negative emotion and it derives from worrying about the possibility of other peoples' negative judgement about oneself. Economists have developed an instrument to measure this brand embarrassment and have found that embarrassing clothing is not only a problem of insecure teenagers. In addition the measuring tool can be used to assess the 'embarrassment potential' of a particular brand.
  • New, presumably tick-borne bacterium discovered in an Austrian fox
    Ticks can transmit various diseases to people and animals. Some well-known diseases spread by ticks include tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme disease. Researchers are hot on the trail of pathogens carried by ticks. The parasitologists recently discovered a new form of the bacterium Candidatus Neoehrlichia in a red fox from the Austrian state of Vorarlberg. The pathogen might also be transmittable to humans, they warn.
  • Even the elderly can recover from a severe traumatic brain injury
    Even patients over the age of 75 may recover from severe traumatic brain injury, suggests new research. This is the first study to describe the results of surgically treated elderly patients with acute subdural hematomas.
  • Rapid plankton growth in ocean seen as sign of carbon dioxide loading
    A microscopic marine alga is thriving in the North Atlantic to an extent that defies scientific predictions, suggesting swift environmental change as a result of increased carbon dioxide in the ocean.
  • Scientists get first glimpse of black hole eating star, ejecting high-speed flare
    An international team of astrophysicists has for the first time witnessed a star being swallowed by a black hole and ejecting a flare of matter moving at nearly the speed of light.
  • Rapid plankton growth in ocean seen as sign of carbon dioxide loading
    A microscopic marine alga is thriving in the North Atlantic to an extent that defies scientific predictions, suggesting swift environmental change as a result of increased carbon dioxide in the ocean.
  • Surprise: One organism responsible for nitrification instead of two
    It could never be found until recently, in a fish tank a few floors below a university microbiology department: one single organism able to perform the complete process of nitrification. Microbiologists used to think that two distinct groups of bacteria were responsible for the stepwise oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. This discovery has implications for climate research and wastewater treatment, say the scientists involved in the study.
  • Functional human liver cells grown in the lab
    A new technique for growing human hepatocytes in the laboratory has now been described by a team of researchers. This groundbreaking development could help advance a variety of liver-related research and applications, from studying drug toxicity to creating bio-artificial liver support for patients awaiting transplantations.
  • Molecular trigger for cerebral cavernous malformation identified
    Researchers in Italy, Germany and the United States have identified a regulatory protein crucial for the development of cerebral cavernous malformation -- a severe and incurable disease mainly affecting the brain microvasculature. The results show that the KLF4 protein plays a central role in the development of CCM lesions.
  • Using sphere packing models to explain the structure of forests
    Explaining the complex structure of tropical forests is one of the great challenges in ecology. An issue of special interest is the distribution of different sizes of trees, something which is of particular relevance for biomass estimates. A team of modellers has now developed a new method that can be used to explain the tree size distribution in natural forests. To do so, the scientists use principles from stochastic geometry. Using this approach, it is possible to assess the structure of natural forests across the world more quickly, and produce more accurate biomass estimates.
  • Remote lakes are affected by warming climate, research shows
    The rate of carbon burial in remote lakes has doubled over the last 100 years, researchers say, suggesting even isolated ecosystems are feeling the effects of our changing climate. 
  • Robot to help passengers find their way at airport
    A robot in the “Spencer” project is now all set to face the real world at the major international airport Schiphol in Amsterdam. Its mission: to help passengers find their way around the airport.
  • Looking for cosmic superaccelerators
    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, an international large-scale experiment to study cosmic rays, will be continued until 2025 and extended to "AugerPrime". The observatory will be upgraded with new scintillation detectors for a more detailed measurement of gigantic air showers. This is required to identify cosmic objects that accelerate atomic particles up to highest energies.
  • Specifically controlling the structure of macromolecules
    Researchers will develop new synthesis processes for long-chain molecules in order to characterize and construct them with so far unreached precision. This will result in an innovative leap in a number of material classes, they say.
  • Oxytocin increases social altruism
    Nowadays, much emphasis is placed on sustainability. The degree to which people are willing to donate their own money for this depends on their level of oxytocin. Scientists have discovered that the willingness to donate increases with the quantity of this bonding hormone. However, oxytocin only has an effect with regard to social sustainability projects. The hormone does not increase the ability to participate in the case of purely environmentally oriented projects.
  • Mathematical proof for hot hand shooting in basketball
    A study brings the idea of the lucky streak back to the attention of the research community, offering sound mathematical proof in its favor.
  • Bat immune receptors are one of a kind
    In bats, Toll-like receptors, the first-line defense mechanism against invading pathogens, are different from other mammals. This suggests that the way bats recognize certain pathogens may be different than in other species and help explain why bats appear to suffer little from some pathogens which cause serious disease or mortality in other mammals.
  • Global warming will be faster than expected
    Global warming will progress faster than what was previously believed. The reason is that greenhouse gas emissions that arise naturally are also affected by increased temperatures. This has been confirmed in a new study that measures natural methane emissions.
  • Ancient genetic components of sex determination in ants
    Yin and Yang, Venus and Mars, the Moon and the Sun, however you want to describe it, becoming a female or a male can make a big difference in your life, and not just for human beings. Researchers have discovered the two ancient genetic components of sex determination in ants.
  • Recommended levels of activity rarely achieved by obese children and those with liver disease
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is most common form of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents in western countries, and yet new research indicates that obese children rarely achieve recommended levels of activity.
  • Rice basket study rethinks roots of human culture
    Although teaching is useful, it is not essential for cultural progress because people can use reasoning and reverse engineering of existing items to work out how to make tools, suggests a new article.
  • Stem cell study paves the way for patient therapies
    Stem cells that have been specifically developed for use as clinical therapies are fit for use in patients, an independent study of their genetic makeup suggests. The research -- which focused on human embryonic stem cells -- paves the way for clinical trials of cell therapies to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, age-related degeneration of the eyes and spinal cord injury.
  • 2015 likely to be warmest on record, 2011-2015 warmest five year period
    The global average surface temperature in 2015 is likely to be the warmest on record and to reach the symbolic and significant milestone of 1° Celsius above the pre-industrial era. This is due to a combination of a strong El Niño and human-induced global warming.
  • How a genetic locus protects adult blood-forming stem cells
    A particular location in DNA, called the Dlk1-Gtl2 locus, plays a critical role in protecting hematopoietic, or blood-forming, stem cells -- a discovery revealing a critical role of metabolic control in adult stem cells, and providing insight for potentially diagnosing and treating cancer, according to researchers from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research.
  • Shedding light on oil behaviors before the next spill
    There are still critical research gaps hampering efforts to both assess the environmental impacts of crude oil spills and to effectively remediate them, a Canadian, comprehensive scientific report has concluded.
  • New gene map reveals cancer's Achilles heel
    Scientists have mapped out the genes that keep our cells alive, creating a long-awaited foothold for understanding how our genome works and which genes are crucial in disease like cancer.
  • Closing the loop on an HIV escape mechanism
    The motion of a specific protein in a human cell regulates whether HIV will infect other cells, a collaborative six-university research team has found. The finding may lead to promising new ways to thwart the virus that causes AIDS.
  • Researchers assess use of drug-susceptible parasites to fight drug resistance
    A new model for evaluating a potential new strategy in the fight against drug-resistant diseases has been developed by experts. The strategy would take advantage of parasite refugia--host populations not treated with drugs, thereby serving as 'safe zones' where parasites don't develop drug resistance. When parasites from refugia mix with their drug-resistant counterparts in the general population, they could reduce the incidence of drug-resistance overall, which may help prolong a drug's effectiveness, say the researchers.
  • Heart disease patients who sit a lot have worse health even if they exercise
    Patients with heart disease who sit a lot have worse health even if they exercise, reveals research. Patients in the study wore an activity monitor during their waking hours for nine days. The monitors allowed the researchers to measure how long patients spent being sedentary, or doing light, moderate or vigorous levels of physical activity. The researchers also assessed various markers of health including body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) and cardiorespiratory fitness.
  • No benefit found for use of probiotic Bifidobacterium breve in preemies
    Despite being safe to administer, there is no benefit in using the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve (BBG-001) to prevent late-onset sepsis or necrotising enterocolitis in very preterm children, the results of a phase 3 randomised controlled trial shows.
  • Progesterone supplements do not improve outcomes for recurrent miscarriages, study shows
    Progesterone supplements in the first trimester of pregnancy do not improve outcomes in women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages, new research shows. The findings mark the end of a five year trial and provide a definitive answer to 60 years of uncertainty on the use of progesterone treatment for women with unexplained recurrent losses.
  • Antibody-drug compounds and immunotherapy to treat breast cancer
    To more efficiently treat breast cancer, scientists have been researching molecules that selectively bind to cancer cells and deliver a substance that can kill the tumor cells, for several years. Researchers have now, for the first time, successfully combined such an antibody-drug conjugate with a therapy that stimulates the immune system to attack tumor cells. This opens the door to new therapeutic options in the treatment of breast cancer.
  • Immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes deemed safe in first US trial
    Patients experienced no serious adverse reactions after receiving infusions of as many as 2.6 billion cells that had been specially selected to protect the body's ability to produce insulin, report scientists and physicians at the end of a trial focused on a new type 1 diabetes immunotherapy approach.
  • New technology promises fast, accurate stroke diagnosis
    A new approach to identifying biomarkers in blood has proven successful in helping diagnose stroke, and the technology could be expanded to diagnose such conditions as concussion, some forms of dementia, and some types of cancer and heart disease.
  • Seasonal monarch butterfly migrations may help lower infection levels
    Seasonal migrations may help lower infection levels in wild North American monarch butterfly populations, according to a new study. The authors posit that these results combined with recent observations of sedentary, winter-breeding monarch populations in the southern U.S. indicate that the shifts from migratory to sedentary behavior may lead to greater infection for North American monarchs.
  • Discovery could open door to frozen preservation of tissues, whole organs
    A new approach to 'vitrification,' or ice-free cryopreservation, has been discovered, which could ultimately allow a much wider use of extreme cold to preserve tissues and even organs for later use.
  • NTDs disproportionately found in areas of poverty in Islamic Nations
    The Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation is an inter-governmental organization of 57 Muslim-majority countries with a mission to promote human rights and advance science and technology development. A newly published review examines the current state of neglected tropical diseases in OIC countries and how this corresponds to human development and poverty.
  • Overweight, obesity early in life increase risk of cardiac death
    Overweight and obesity throughout adulthood, and especially elevated weight in early adulthood, were associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death in a 32-year study of more than 72,000 women, new research concludes.
  • New strategy discovered for treating arthritis
    Arthritis patients could one day benefit from a novel form of medicine, according to researchers. Their early study indicates that arthritic cartilage, previously thought to be impenetrable to therapies, could be treated by a patient's own 'microvesicles' that are able to travel into cartilage cells and deliver therapeutic agents.
  • Two-thirds of studies on 'psychosocial' treatments fail to declare conflicts of interest
    The creators of commercially sold counseling programs increasingly profit from public health services across the world. However, a new study on the evidence basis for some of the market leaders reveals that serious conflicts of interest across the majority of the research go habitually undisclosed.
  • Eggshell porosity can be used to infer the type of nest built by extinct archosaurs
    Extinct archosaurs' eggshell porosity may be used as a proxy for predicting covered or exposed nest types, according to a new study.
  • Cichlid fish view unfamiliar faces longer, from further distance than familiar faces
    Fish viewed digital models with unfamiliar fish faces longer and from a further distance than models with familiar faces, according to a new study.
  • Insect DNA extracted, sequenced from black widow spider web
    Scientists extracted DNA from spider webs to identify the web's spider architect and the prey that crossed it, according to this proof-of-concept study.
  • 'Material universe' yields surprising new particle
    An international team of researchers has predicted the existence of a new type of particle called the type-II Weyl fermion in metallic materials. The discovery suggests a range of potential applications, from low-energy devices to efficient transistors.
  • Urban trees provide pollution solution
    Urban environments struggle with contaminated water running off, causing pollution and algal blooms. In response, cities often use natural landscapes of soil, grasses, and trees. These biofiltration systems capture and filter the runoff. Researchers measured how well tree species grew when watered with stormwater, and how well they took extra nutrients out of the stormwater.
  • Anticancer agent FL118 more potent than its analogs, not prone to typical channels of resistance
    A new synthetic form of camptothecin appears to have greater potency, longer efficacy and fewer adverse side effects than irinotecan and topotecan, report investigators.
  • How cells 'climb' to build fruit fly tracheas
    Fruit fly windpipes are much more like human blood vessels than the entryway to human lungs. To create that intricate network, fly embryonic cells must sprout "fingers" and crawl into place. Now researchers have discovered that a protein called Mipp1 is key to cells' ability to grow these fingers.
  • Data scientists create world's first therapeutic venom database
    What doesn't kill you could cure you. A growing interest in the therapeutic value of animal venom has led data scientists to create the first catalog of known animal toxins and their physiological effects on humans.
  • Peering into cell structures where neurodiseases emerge
    Atom by atom, researchers reveal the structure of CAP-Gly, a protein that binds to the latticework of microtubules in our cells. When mutations occur in CAP-Gly, neurological diseases and disorders occur, including Perry syndrome and distal spinal bulbar muscular dystrophy.
  • Changing season means a changing diet for bison
    North American bison adjust their diet seasonally in order to take full advantage of the growing season when grasses become less nutritious, a new study has discovered.
  • Halteres, essential for flight in all flies, are needed by some to climb walls
    Sensory organs called halteres may play multiple roles in how flies behave, providing clues to how brains absorb and use multiple streams of information, new research indicates.
  • Willingness to adopt children with special needs the focus of recent study
    A new study has focused on the attitudes and preferences of prospective adoptive parents in Canada. The study examined the preferences and attitudes of 5,830 AdoptOntario online registrants between May 2009 and February 2012.
  • Liver cell therapies closer as study reveals key to mass production
    Stem cell scientists have made a key find that aids the quest to produce therapies for patients with liver damage. They have developed a new technique for growing liver cells from stem cells that is cost-effective and could be adapted for mass production of clinical grade cells.
  • Contact with nature may mean more social cohesion, less crime
    In a first-of-its-kind study, an international team tested social correlates of both objective and subjective contact with nature in a systematic way, revealing complex linkages between nature, social cohesion, and a variety of other factors.
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