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Chemical News is your source of fresh chemistry data and insights. Chemical news are aggregated from multiple chemistry sources and presented here for convenient consumption.
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  • Three-quarters of depressed cancer patients do not receive treatment for depression; new approach could transform care
    Three papers reveal that around three-quarters of cancer patients who have major depression are not currently receiving treatment for depression, and that a new integrated treatment program is strikingly more effective at reducing depression and improving quality of life than current care.
  • Inside the Teenage Brain: New Studies Explain Risky Behavior
    It’s common knowledge that teenage boys seem predisposed to risky behaviors. Now, a series of new studies is shedding light on specific brain mechanisms that help to explain what might be going on inside juvenile male brains.
  • Why some liquids are 'fragile' and others are 'strong'
    Only recently has it become possible to accurately 'see' the structure of a liquid. Using X-rays and a high-tech apparatus that holds liquids without a container, a physicist has compared the behavior of glass-forming liquids as they approach the glass transition. The results are the strongest demonstration yet that bulk properties like viscosity are linked to microscopic ones like structure.
  • Social class makes a difference in how children tackle classroom problems
    Social class can account for differences in how parents coach their children to manage classroom challenges, a study shows. Such differences can affect a child's education by reproducing inequalities in the classroom. With the widening gaps in educational outcomes between social classes, the researcher suggested that this study could help schools become more aware of these differences and make moves to reduce the inequalities.
  • Nanodiamonds are forever: Did comet collision leave layer of nanodiamonds across Earth?
    A comet collision with Earth caused abrupt environmental stress and degradation that contributed to the extinction of most large animal species then inhabiting the Americas, a group of scientists suggests. The catastrophic impact and the subsequent climate change also led to the disappearance of the prehistoric Clovis culture, and to human population decline. Now focus has turned to the character and distribution of nanodiamonds, one type of material produced during such an extraterrestrial collision. The researchers found an abundance of these tiny diamonds distributed over 50 million square kilometers across the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Novel 'butterfly' molecule could build new sensors, photoenergy conversion devices
    Exciting new work has led to a novel molecular system that can take your temperature, emit white light, and convert photon energy directly to mechanical motions. And, the molecule looks like a butterfly.
  • A touching story: Ancient conversation between plants, fungi and bacteria
    The mechanical force that a single fungal cell or bacterial colony exerts on a plant cell may seem vanishingly small, but it plays a heavy role in setting up some of the most fundamental symbiotic relationships in biology, according to a new study. It's known that disease-causing fungi build a structure to break through the plant cell wall, "but there is growing evidence that fungi and also bacteria in symbiotic associations use a mechanical stimulation to indicate their presence," says one researcher. "They are knocking on the door, but not breaking it down."
  • Water 'thermostat' could help engineer drought-resistant crops
    A gene that could help engineer drought-resistant crops has been identified by researchers. The gene, called OSCA1, encodes a protein in the cell membrane of plants that senses changes in water availability and adjusts the plant's water conservation machinery accordingly. The findings could make it easier to feed the world's growing population in the face of climate change.
  • First study of brain activation in MS using fNIRS
    Using functional near infrared spectroscopy, researchers showed differential brain activation patterns between people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls. This is first MS study to examine brain activation using fNIRS during a cognitive task.
  • Encyclopedia of how genomes function gets much bigger
    A big step in understanding the mysteries of the human genome has been unveiled in the form of three analyses that provide the most detailed comparison yet of how the genomes of the fruit fly, roundworm, and human function. The analyses will likely offer insights into how the information in the human genome regulates development, and how it is responsible for diseases.
  • Tracking spending among commercially insured
    Recent growth in health care spending for commercially insured individuals is due primarily to increases in prices for medical services, rather than increased use, according to a new study. Increases in health care spending for commercially insured beneficiaries were principally the result of increases in prices (how much medical services cost) -- especially for outpatient services -- rather than increases in utilization (how much medical care is received), researchers conclude.
  • Junk food makes rats lose appetite for balanced diet
    A diet of junk food not only makes rats fat, but also reduces their appetite for novel foods, a preference that normally drives them to seek a balanced diet, reports a study. "The interesting thing about this finding is that if the same thing happens in humans, eating junk food may change our responses to signals associated with food rewards," says an author. "It's like you've just had ice cream for lunch, yet you still go and eat more when you hear the ice cream van come by."
  • Cheetah menu: Wildlife instead of cattle
    Cheetahs primarily prefer wildlife on their menu to cattle, scientists have confirmed. The cheetah is a vulnerable species that only exists on Namibia’s commercial farmland in large populations. Here, local farmers see cheetahs as a potential threat for their cattle.
  • Gang life brings deep health risks for girls
    Being involved in a gang poses considerable health-related risks for adolescent African American girls, including more casual sex partners and substance abuse combined with less testing for HIV and less knowledge about preventing sexually transmitted diseases, according to a new study.
  • Rubber meets the road with new carbon, battery technologies
    Recycled tires could see new life in lithium-ion batteries that provide power to plug-in electric vehicles and store energy produced by wind and solar, say researchers. By modifying the microstructural characteristics of carbon black, a substance recovered from discarded tires, a team is developing a better anode for lithium-ion batteries.
  • Stop and listen: Study shows how movement affects hearing
    When we want to listen carefully to someone, the first thing we do is stop talking. The second thing we do is stop moving altogether. The interplay between movement and hearing has a counterpart deep in the brain. A new study used optogenetics to reveal exactly how the motor cortex, which controls movement, can tweak the volume control in the auditory cortex, which interprets sound.
  • Malaria symptoms fade on repeat infections due to loss of immune cells
    Children who repeatedly become infected with malaria often experience no clinical symptoms with these subsequent infections, and a team of scientists has discovered that this might be due at least in part to a depletion of specific types of immune cells. Additionally, researchers speculate that malaria infection, by reshaping immune responses, might influence susceptibility to, and protection from, other infectious diseases.
  • Self-deceived individuals deceive others better
    Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and reach influential positions in banks and other organizations. And these people are more likely to overestimate other people's abilities and take greater risks, possibly creating problems for their organizations.
  • Orphaned children can do just as well in institutions, study concludes
    The removal of institutions or group homes will not lead to better child well-being and could even worsen outcomes for some orphaned and separated children, according to new findings from a three-year study across five low- and middle-income countries. Children in institutions are as healthy and, in some ways, healthier than those in family-based care, according to the study.
  • Stone-tipped spears lethal, may indicate early cognitive and social skills
    Attaching a stone tip on to a wooden spear shaft was a significant innovation for early modern humans living around 500,000 years ago. However, it was also a costly behavior in terms of time and effort to collect, prepare and assemble the spear. Researchers conducted controlled experiments to learn if there was a 'wounding' advantage between using a wooden spear or a stone-tipped spear.
  • Xenon exposure shown to erase traumatic memories
    Xenon gas, used in humans for anesthesia and diagnostic imaging, has the potential to be a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder and other memory-related disorders, researchers report. "We know from previous research that each time an emotional memory is recalled, the brain actually restores it as if it were a new memory. With this knowledge, we decided to see whether we could alter the process by introducing xenon gas immediately after a fear memory was reactivated," explained an author.
  • Bronze age wine cellar found: Wine residue, herbal additives found in palace cellar jars
    A Bronze Age palace excavation reveals an ancient wine cellar. Wine production, distribution, and consumption are thought to have played a role in the lives of those living in the Mediterranean and Near East during the Middle Bronze Age (1900-1600 BC), but little archaeological evidence about Bronze Age wine is available to support art and documentation about the role wine played during this period.
  • Wolves susceptible to yawn contagion: Social bonds may increase yawning contagion between wolves
    Wolves may be susceptible to yawn contagion, according to a new study. Researchers suggest that contagious yawning may be linked to human capacity for empathy, but little evidence apart from studies on primates, exists that links contagious yawning to empathy in other animals. Recently, researchers have documented domestic dogs demonstrating contagious yawning when exposed to human yawns in a scientific setting, but it is unclear whether this phenomenon is rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals, or has evolved in dogs as a result of domestication.
  • Alcohol-dependence gene linked to neurotransmitter
    Scientists have solved the mystery of why a specific signaling pathway can be associated with alcohol dependence. The new research shows the gene, Nf1, regulates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that lowers anxiety and increases relaxation feelings.
  • Dosage of HIV drug may be ineffective for half of African-Americans
    Many African-Americans may not be getting effective doses of the HIV drug maraviroc because they are more likely than European-Americans to inherit functional copies of a protein that speeds the removal of the drug from the body.
  • More wolf spiders feasting on American toads due to invasive grass, study shows
    An invasive grass species frequently found in forests has created a thriving habitat for wolf spiders, who then feed on American toads, a new study has found. Japanese stiltgrass, which was accidentally introduced to the US in the early 1900s, is one of the most pervasive invasive species. Typically found along roads and in forests, it has been found to impact native plant species, invertebrate populations and soil nutrients.
  • emotional association of memories changed by researchers
    By manipulating neural circuits in the brain of mice, scientists have altered the emotional associations of specific memories. The research reveals that the connections between the part of the brain that stores contextual information about an experience and the part of the brain that stores the emotional memory of that experience are malleable.
  • Marijuana compound may offer treatment for Alzheimer's disease
    Extremely low levels of the compound in marijuana known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, may slow or halt the progression of Alzheimer's disease, a recent study from neuroscientists shows.
  • More accurate Twitter analysis tools developed
    'Trending' topics on Twitter show the quantity of tweets associated with a specific event but trends only show the highest volume keywords and hashtags, and may not give information about the tweets themselves. Now, using data associated with the Super Bowl and World Series, researchers have developed and validated a software program that analyzes event-based tweets and measures the context of tweets rather than just the quantity.
  • Snowfall in a warmer world
    Big snowstorms will still occur in the Northern Hemisphere following global warming, a study shows. While most areas in the Northern Hemisphere will likely experience less snowfall throughout a season, the study concludes that extreme snow events will still occur, even in a future with significant warming.
  • Shared biology in human, fly and worm genomes: Powerful commonalities in biological activity, regulation
    Researchers analyzing human, fly, and worm genomes have found that these species have a number of key genomic processes in common, reflecting their shared ancestry. The findings offer insights into embryonic development, gene regulation and other biological processes vital to understanding human biology and disease.
  • NIH issues finalized policy on genomic data sharing
    The National Institutes of Health has issued a final NIH Genomic Data Sharing policy to promote data sharing as a way to speed the translation of data into knowledge, products and procedures that improve health while protecting the privacy of research participants.
  • Breaking benzene selectively, at relatively mild temperatures
    Scientists have demonstrated a way to use a metallic complex, trinuclear titanium hydride, to accomplish the task of activating benzene by breaking the aromatic carbon-carbon bonds at relatively mild temperatures and in a highly selective way.
  • Neuroscientists reverse memories' emotional associations: Brain circuit that links feelings to memories manipulated
    Most memories have some kind of emotion associated with them: Recalling the week you just spent at the beach probably makes you feel happy, while reflecting on being bullied provokes more negative feelings. A new study from neuroscientists reveals the brain circuit that controls how memories become linked with positive or negative emotions.
  • Evolution used similar molecular toolkits to shape flies, worms, and humans
    Although separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution, flies, worms, and humans share ancient patterns of gene expression, according to a massive analysis of genomic data. Two related studies tell a similar story: even though humans, worms, and flies bear little obvious similarity to each other, evolution used remarkably similar molecular toolkits to shape them.
  • Detecting neutrinos, physicists look into the heart of the sun
    Using one of the most sensitive neutrino detectors on the planet, physicists have directly detected neutrinos created by the 'keystone' proton-proton fusion process going on at the sun's core for the first time.
  • Flexing the brain: Why learning tasks can be difficult
    Learning a new skill is easier when it is related to an ability we already have. For example, a trained pianist can learn a new melody easier than learning how to hit a tennis serve. Scientists have discovered a fundamental constraint in the brain that may explain why this happens.
  • Red Planet's Climate History uncovered in Unique Meteorite
    Was Mars — now a cold, dry place — once a warm, wet planet that sustained life? Research underway may one day answer those questions — and perhaps even help pave the way for future colonization of the Red Planet. By analyzing the chemical clues locked inside an ancient Martian meteorite known as Black Beauty, scientists are revealing the story of Mars’ ancient, and sometimes startling, climate history.
  • Early growth of giant galaxy, just 3 billion years after the Big Bang, revealed
    The birth of massive galaxies, according to galaxy formation theories, begins with the buildup of a dense, compact core that is ablaze with the glow of millions of newly formed stars. Evidence of this early construction phase, however, has eluded astronomers — until now. Astronomers identified a dense galactic core, dubbed "Sparky," using a combination of data from several space telescopes. Hubble photographed the emerging galaxy as it looked 11 billion years ago, just 3 billion years after the birth of our universe in the big bang.
  • Walking fish reveal how our ancestors evolved onto land
    About 400 million years ago a group of fish began exploring land and evolved into tetrapods – today's amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. But just how these ancient fish used their fishy bodies and fins in a terrestrial environment and what evolutionary processes were at play remain scientific mysteries.
  • Educated consumers more likely to use potentially unreliable online healthcare information
    Consumers are increasingly turning to forums, video-sharing sites, and peer support groups to gather anecdotal health-care information and advice, which may distract them from more reliable and trustworthy sources. New research studies the characteristics of consumers who use the Internet to collect health-care information.
  • Lifetime of fitness: Fountain of youth for bone, joint health?
    Being physically active may significantly improve musculoskeletal and overall health, and minimize or delay the effects of aging. "An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates that we can modulate age-related decline in the musculoskeletal system," said the lead study author.. "A lot of the deterioration we see with aging can be attributed to a more sedentary lifestyle instead of aging itself."
  • Parents, listen next time your baby babbles
    Parents who try to understand their baby's babbling let their infants know they can communicate, which leads to children forming complex sounds and using language more quickly. The study's results showed infants whose mothers attended more closely to their babbling vocalized more complex sounds and develop language skills sooner.
  • Impact of cultural diversity in brain injury research
    The implications for cultural diversity and cultural competence in brain injury research and rehabilitation has been the focus of recent study. Risk for brain injury is higher among minorities, as is the likelihood for poorer outcomes. More research is needed to reduce health disparities and improve outcomes among minorities with brain injury, experts say.
  • 'Junk' blood tests may offer life-saving information
    Thirty percent of all positive hospital blood culture samples are discarded every day because they reflect the presence of skin germs instead of specific disease-causing bacteria. Now research demonstrates that rather than toss these samples into the trash, clinicians may be able to use the resistance profiles of skin bacteria to treat patients with antibiotics appropriate to their ailment.
  • Yellowstone supereruption would send ash across North America
    In the unlikely event of a volcanic supereruption at Yellowstone National Park, the northern Rocky Mountains would be blanketed in meters of ash, and millimeters would be deposited as far away as New York City, Los Angeles and Miami, according to a new study.
  • New smartphone app can detect newborn jaundice in minutes
    Engineers and physicians have developed a smartphone application that checks for jaundice in newborns and can deliver results to parents and pediatricians within minutes. Skin that turns yellow can be a sure sign that a newborn is jaundiced and isn't adequately eliminating the chemical bilirubin. But that discoloration is sometimes hard to see, and severe jaundice left untreated can harm a baby.
  • Materials Other Than Silicon for Next Generation Electronic Devices
    Silicon has been the most successful material of the 20th century, with major global industries and even a valley named after it. But silicon may be running out of steam for high performance/low power electronics. As silicon strains against the physical limits of performance, could a material like InGaAs provide enough of an improvement over silicon that it would be worth the expense in new equipment lines and training to make the switch worthwhile?
  • Southwest U. S. may face 'megadrought' this century
    Due to global warming, scientists say, the chances of the southwestern United States experiencing a decade long drought is at least 50 percent, and the chances of a “megadrought” – one that lasts over 30 years – ranges from 20 to 50 percent over the next century.
  • Group identity emphasized more by those who just make the cut
    People and institutions who are marginal members of a high-status or well-esteemed group tend to emphasize their group membership more than those who are squarely entrenched members of the group, according to new research.
  • Promising new cancer therapy uses molecular 'Trash Man' to exploit a common cancer defense
    While many scientists are trying to prevent the onset of a cancer defense mechanism known as autophagy, other researchers are leveraging it in a new therapy that causes the process to culminate in cell death rather than survival.
  • NOAA's Marine Debris Program reports on national issue of derelict fishing traps
    Thousands of fishing traps are lost or abandoned each year in US waters. A new NOAA report is the first of its kind to examine the derelict fish trap problem, nationally, and recommends actions to better manage and prevent it.
  • Pacific plate shrinking as it cools
    The Pacific tectonic plate is not as rigid as scientists believe, according to new calculations. Scientists have determined that cooling of the lithosphere -- the outermost layer of Earth -- makes some sections of the Pacific plate contract horizontally at faster rates than others and cause the plate to deform.
  • New study throws into question long-held belief about depression
    New evidence puts into doubt the long-standing belief that a deficiency in serotonin -- a chemical messenger in the brain -- plays a central role in depression. Scientists report that mice lacking the ability to make serotonin in their brains (and thus should have been 'depressed' by conventional wisdom) did not show depression-like symptoms.
  • How to prevent organic food fraud
    A growing number of consumers are willing to pay a premium for fruits, vegetables and other foods labelled 'organic,' but whether they're getting what the label claims is another matter. Now scientists studying conventional and organic tomatoes are devising a new way to make sure farms are labeling their produce appropriately.
  • Potential therapy for the Sudan strain of Ebola could help contain some future outbreaks
    Ebola is a rare, but deadly disease that exists as five strains, none of which have approved therapies. One of the most lethal strains is the Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). Although not the strain currently devastating West Africa, SUDV has caused widespread illness, even as recently as 2012. Researchers now report a possible therapy that could someday help treat patients infected with SUDV.
  • Paleontologists describe a possible dinosaur nest and young 'babysitter'
    A new examination of a rock slab containing fossils of 24 very young dinosaurs and one older individual is suggestive of a group of hatchlings overseen by a caretaker, according to a new study.
  • Common anemia: Drug represents first potential treatment
    An experimental drug designed to help regulate the blood's iron supply shows promise as a viable first treatment for anemia of inflammation, according to results from the first human study of the treatment. Anemia is a condition that occurs when red blood cells are in short supply or do not function properly. When an individual has anemia, the body does not get enough oxygen, since there are fewer red blood cells to carry the iron-rich protein hemoglobin that helps distribute oxygen throughout the body.
  • Potential therapy for incurable Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease found
    A potential new treatment approach for hereditary neurological disorder, the incurable Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, has been found by researchers. Patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A harbour an extra copy of the PMP22 gene which leads to the overproduction of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), a key component of myelin.
  • Greenhouse gases: New group of soil micro-organisms can contribute to their elimination
    The ability of soils to eliminate N2O can mainly be explained by the diversity and abundance of a new group of micro-organisms that are capable of transforming it into atmospheric nitrogen (N2).
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  • Memo also encourages academic labs to count samples and tighten safety procedures

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  • NIH prepares small-scaled clinical trials to evaluate safety and immune responses

  • Five who participated in study of the genetics of deadly virus became infected and died while caring for patients or loved ones

  • Electromagnetic stimulation applied to the skull improves recall
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