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Chemical News is your source of fresh chemistry data and insights. Chemical news are aggregated from multiple chemistry sources and presented here for convenient consumption.
BBC News - Science & Environment
Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
  • New way to diagnose malaria by detecting parasite's waste in infected blood cells
    A technique that can detect malarial parasite's waste in infected blood cells has been developed by researchers. "There is real potential to make this into a field-deployable system, especially since you don't need any kind of labels or dye. It's based on a naturally occurring biomarker that does not require any biochemical processing of samples" says one of the senior authors of a paper.
  • Why sibling stars look alike: Early, fast mixing in star-birth clouds
    Early, fast, turbulent mixing of gas within giant molecular clouds -- the birthplaces of stars -- means all stars formed from a single cloud bear the same unique chemical 'tag' or 'DNA fingerprint,' write astrophysicists. Could such chemical tags help astronomers identify our own Sun's long-lost sibling stars?
  • Memory in silent neurons: How do unconnected neurons communicate?
    According to a generally-accepted model of synaptic plasticity, a neuron that communicates with others of the same kind emits an electrical impulse as well as activating its synapses transiently. This electrical pulse, combined with the signal received from other neurons, acts to stimulate the synapses. How is it that some neurons are caught up in the communication interplay even when they are barely connected? This is the chicken-or-egg puzzle of synaptic plasticity that a team is aiming to solve.
  • Changing global diets is vital to reducing climate change
    Healthier diets and reducing food waste are part of a combination of solutions needed to ensure food security and avoid dangerous climate change, say the team behind a new study.
  • Antarctic sea-level rising faster than global rate
    A new study of satellite data from the last 19 years reveals that fresh water from melting glaciers has caused the sea-level around the coast of Antarctica to rise by 2cm more than the global average of 6cm. Researchers detected the rapid rise in sea-level by studying satellite scans of a region that spans more than a million square kilometers. The melting of the Antarctic ice sheet and the thinning of floating ice shelves has contributed an excess of around 350 gigatonnes of freshwater to the surrounding ocean.
  • Wine only protects against CVD in people who exercise
    Wine only protects against cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people who exercise, according to results from the a study. Evidence suggesting that mild to moderate consumption of wine protects against cardiovascular disease has been accumulating since the early 1990s. In particular, retrospective studies have found that wine increases levels of HDL, the "good" cholesterol. But until now there has been no long-term, prospective, randomised study comparing the effects of red and white wine on HDL cholesterol and other markers of atherosclerosis.
  • Drinking tea reduces non-CV mortality by 24 percent
    Drinking tea reduces non-cardiovascular mortality by 24 percent, reveals a study in 131,000 people. "Tea has antioxidants which may provide survival benefits. Tea drinkers also have healthier lifestyles so does tea drinking reflect a particular person profile or is it tea, per se, that improves outcomes -- for me that remains an open question. Pending the answer to that question, I think that you could fairly honestly recommend tea drinking rather than coffee drinking and even rather than not drinking anything at all," one researcher said.
  • Energy drinks cause heart problems, study suggests
    Energy drinks can cause heart problems according to research. "So-called 'energy drinks' are popular in dance clubs and during physical exercise, with people sometimes consuming a number of drinks one after the other. This situation can lead to a number of adverse conditions including angina, cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat) and even sudden death," researchers report.
  • Batteryless cardiac pacemaker is based on automatic wristwatch
    A new batteryless cardiac pacemaker based on an automatic wristwatch and powered by heart motion has been presented by researchers. The prototype device does not require battery replacement.
  • New horizon in heart failure: Investigational drug poised to change cardiology?
    An investigational new heart failure drug could be poised to change the face of cardiology based on Hot Line results. The new agent, known as LCZ696, has already been granted Fast Track status by the FDA -- a designation which can expedite the review of new medicines intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions. Fast Track designation also allows for rolling submission in the US. "To say that we are excited is an understatement. We are absolutely thrilled," said Dr. one investigator.
  • Factor in naked mole rat's cells enhances protein integrity
    A factor in naked mole rat cells could be one of the secrets to how the rodent defies aging, researchers say. Naked mole rats, which burrow through underground tunnels in their native East Africa, are nearly hairless rodents. They live as long as 32 years. Naked mole rats maintain cancer-free good health and reproductive potential well into their third decade of life.
  • Surprising discovery: HIV hides in gut, evading eradication
    Some surprising discoveries about the body's initial responses to HIV infection have been made by researchers. One of the biggest obstacles to complete viral eradication and immune recovery is the stable HIV reservoir in the gut. There is very little information about the early viral invasion and the establishment of the gut reservoir. “We want to understand what enables the virus to invade the gut, cause inflammation and kill the immune cells,” said the study's lead author.
  • Report advocates improved police training
    A new report identifies ways to improve the mental health training and education that police personnel receive. "The most important part of the report and what comes after is making sure people living with mental illness are involved in the delivery of training," says one expert.
  • Antidepressants show potential for postoperative pain
    Anesthesiologists examine studies where antidepressants were prescribed for pain after surgery. Clinical trials are often used to answer questions about the efficacy of the off-label uses of drugs. In the case of antidepressants, their effects on postsurgical pain continue to be an area of research interest.
  • Preventing cancer from forming 'tentacles' stops dangerous spread
    'Invadopodia' play a key role in the spread of cancer, a team of researchers reports. The study shows preventing these tentacle-like structures from forming can stop the spread of cancer entirely.
  • Options for weight loss your primary care doctor might not know about
    Despite US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for screening and treating obesity, there are many barriers, several of which may be ameliorated through technological approaches according to a new study.
  • Efficacy of new gene therapy approach for toxin exposures shown in mouse study
    Gene therapy may offer significant advantages in prevention and treatment of botulism exposure over current methods, new research shows. "We envision this treatment approach having a broad range of applications such as protecting military personnel from biothreat agents or protecting the public from other toxin-mediated diseases such as C. difficile and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infections," said the lead researcher.
  • Balloon rise over fort sumner
    In a few days, a balloon-borne telescope sensitive to the polarization of high-energy “hard” X rays will ascend to the edge of the atmosphere above Fort Sumner, N.M., to stare fixedly at black holes and other exotic astronomical objects. It will be carried aloft by a stratospheric balloon that will expand to a sphere large enough to hold a 747 jetliner the float height of 120,000 feet, three times the height at which commercial aircraft fly and on the edge of Earth’s atmosphere. Launching the balloon is not child’s play.
  • Vaccine for Ebola? Experts answer questions
    To learn more about this outbreak and the creation of new human vaccines, infectious disease experts who have led vaccine studies for such global pathogens as cholera, West Nile virus, dengue, typhoid fever and anthrax speak to reporters and answer questions.
  • Pioneer strategy for creating new materials
    Making something new is never easy. Scientists constantly theorize about new materials, but when the material is manufactured it doesn't always work as expected. To create a new strategy for designing materials, scientists combined two different approaches at two different facilities to synthesize new materials. This new strategy gives faster feedback on what growth schemes are best, thus shortening the timeframe to manufacture a new, stable material for energy transport and conversion applications.
  • How Ebola blocks immune system
    Researchers have identified one way the Ebola virus dodges the body's antiviral defenses, providing important insight that could lead to new therapies.
  • Revealing novel mode of action for osteoporosis drug
    Raloxifene is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for decreasing fracture risk in osteoporosis. While raloxifene is as effective at reducing fracture risk as other current treatments, this works only partially by suppressing bone loss. X-ray studies revealed an additional mechanism underlying raloxifene action, providing an explanation for how this drug can achieve equivalent clinical benefit.
  • New biodiversity metric defined by researchers
    To understand how the repeated climatic shifts over the last 120,000 years may have influenced today's patterns of genetic diversity, a team of researchers developed a new biodiversity metric called 'phylogeographic endemism.'
  • Evidence mounting that older adults who volunteer are happier, healthier
    Older adults who stay active by volunteering are getting more out of it than just an altruistic feeling -- they are receiving a health boost too, researchers report. Volunteering is associated with reductions in symptoms of depression, better overall health, fewer functional limitations, and greater longevity.
  • Leading Ebola researcher says there's an effective treatment for Ebola
    A leading US Ebola researcher has gone on record stating that a blend of three monoclonal antibodies can completely protect monkeys against a lethal dose of Ebola virus up to five days after infection, at a time when the disease is severe.
  • Ready for mating at the right time: How pheromones signal mating cues in tilapia
    Fish rely on pheromones to trigger social responses and to coordinate reproductive behavior in males and females. Scientists have now identified such a signal molecule in the urine of male Mozambique tilapia: this pheromone boosts hormone production and accelerates oocyte maturation in reproductive females.
  • Hydrogen powers important nitrogen-transforming bacteria
    Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria can use hydrogen as an alternative source of energy, an international team of researchers has found. The oxidation of hydrogen with oxygen enables their growth independent of nitrite and a lifestyle outside the nitrogen cycle.
  • Reducing water scarcity possible by 2050
    Water scarcity is not a problem just for the developing world. Increased water-recycling and improved irrigation techniques are among many strategies identified in North America as key to successfully reducing global water scarcity. But despite what some may see as an insurmountable problem, it is possible to turn the situation around and significantly reduce water scarcity in just over 35 years, according to researchers.
  • Intense Exercise during Long Space Flights Helps Astronauts Protect Aerobic Capacity
    Many astronauts experience a dip in aerobic capacity during long space flights, which can impair their ability to perform complex and demanding routine tasks. In a new article, NASA researchers find that regular, intense in-flight exercise helps preserve cardiovascular stamina.
  • WHO issues roadmap to scale up international response to the Ebola outbreak in west Africa
    The World Health Organization has issued a roadmap to guide and coordinate the international response to the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in west Africa. The aim is to stop ongoing Ebola transmission worldwide within 6-9 months, while rapidly managing the consequences of any further international spread.
  • Copper shines as flexible conductor
    By turning instead to copper, both abundant and cheap, researchers have developed a way of making flexible conductors cost-effective enough for commercial application.
  • Can YouTube save your life?
    Only a handful of CPR and basic life support videos available on YouTube provide instructions which are consistent with recent health guidelines, according to a new study. Only 11.5% of the analyzed videos were found to be completely compatible with 2010 CPR guidelines with regard to sequence of interviews. "Although well-designed videos can create awareness and be useful as tools in training, they can never replace hands-on instruction from a properly qualified health practitioner," said one author.
  • Astrophysicists report radioactive cobalt in supernova explosion
    Astrophysicists have detected the formation of radioactive cobalt during a supernova explosion, lending credence to a corresponding theory of supernova explosions.
  • Not all phytoplankton in the ocean need to take their vitamins
    Some species of marine phytoplankton, such as the prolific bloomer Emiliania huxleyi, which can grow so big it can be seen from space, can grow without consuming vitamin B1 (thiamine), researchers have discovered. Until now, many marine microbes with cells that have a nucleus -- eukaryotes -- were thought to depend on other organisms to produce thiamine. If this were the case, B1 would be a major factor in controlling the growth of algae such as E. huxleyi.
  • 'Face time' for the diagnoses of cardiac disease
    To the careful observer, a person's face has long provided insight into what is going on beneath the surface. Now, with the assistance of a web camera and software algorithms, the face can also reveal whether or not an individual is experiencing atrial fibrillation, a treatable but potentially dangerous heart condition.
  • MERS: Low transmissibility, dangerous illness
    The MERS coronavirus has caused disease outbreaks across the Arabian Peninsula and spread to Europe several times. The severe pneumonia virus has claimed the lives of several hundred people since its discovery in 2012. For a long time, scientists have been puzzled over how easily the pathogen spreads from human to human. An international team of researchers has now come to the conclusion that the rate of human transmission is low.
  • Simpler process to grow germanium nanowires could improve lithium-ion batteries
    Researchers have developed what they call “a simple, one-step method” to grow nanowires of germanium from an aqueous solution. Their process could make it more feasible to use germanium in lithium-ion batteries.
  • Intervention needed for survivors of childhood burns
    Adults who have been hospitalized for a burn as a child experience higher than usual rates of depression and suicidal thoughts, according to new research. A 30-year follow up of childhood burns victims has found that 42% of people surveyed had suffered some form of mental illness and 30% suffered depression at some stage in their lives.
  • Assortativity signatures of transcription factor networks contribute to robustness
    The type and number of connections in transcription factor networks (TFNs) have been studied to evaluate the role assortativity plays on robustness. The study found that the assortativity signature contributes to a network’s resilience against mutations. Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that initiate and regulate the expression of a gene. To achieve their genetic mission, TFs also regulate one another’s expression.
  • Socioeconomic status, gender are associated with differences in cholesterol levels
    A long-term lifestyle study reports differences between the sexes when it comes to fat profiles associated with socioeconomic status. Research now breaks down factors associated with social class and finds surprising inequalities between men and women.
  • Breakthrough in light sources for new quantum technology
    One of the most promising technologies for future quantum circuits are photonic circuits, i.e. circuits based on light (photons) instead of electrons (electronic circuits). First, it is necessary to create a stream of single photons and control their direction. Researchers have now succeeded in creating a steady stream of photons emitted one at a time and in a particular direction.
  • Meaningful relationships can help you thrive
    Deep and meaningful relationships play a vital role in overall well-being. A new paper provides an important perspective on thriving through relationships, emphasizes two types of support that relationships provide, and illuminates aspects where further study is necessary.
  • Some women still don’t underststand 'overdiagnosis' risk in breast screening
    A third of women who are given information about the chance of ‘overdiagnosis’ through the breast screening programs may not fully understand the risks involved, according to research. Overdiagnosis happens because some breast cancers grow so slowly that it would take more than a lifetime for them to threaten a woman's health. For every life that is saved through screening, researchers estimate that around three women will be overdiagnosed with breast cancer.
  • Plug 'n' play protein crystals
    Almost a hundred years ago in 1929 Linus Pauling presented the famous Pauling’s Rules to describe the principles governing the structure of complex ionic crystals. These rules essentially describe how the arrangement of atoms in a crystal is critically dependent on the size of the atoms, their charge and type of bonding. According to scientists today, similar rules can be applied to prepare ionic colloidal crystals consisting of oppositely charged proteins and virus particles.
  • Danish museum discovers unique gift from Charles Darwin
    The Natural History Museum of Denmark recently discovered a unique gift from one of the greatest-ever scientists. In 1854, Charles Darwin – father of the theory of evolution – sent a gift to his Danish colleague Japetus Steenstrup, director of the Royal Museum of Natural History. Until very recently, no one at the museum knew that it possessed a piece of scientific history of this caliber. Just a few weeks ago, the head of exhibitions was studying the correspondence between Steenstrup and Darwin as part of her search for objects to include in an upcoming exhibition. She started to suspect a treasure lay hidden somewhere, and soon a hunt was launched among the museum’s 14 million objects.
  • Managing coasts under threat from climate change, sea-level rise
    Coastal regions under threat from climate change and sea-level rise need to tackle the more immediate threats of human-led and other non-climatic changes, according to a team of international scientists. The team of 27 scientists from five continents reviewed 24 years of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments. They focused on climate change and sea-level rise impacts in the coastal zone, and examined ways of how to better manage and cope with climate change.
  • How nerve cells communicate with each other over long distances: Travelling by resonance
    How nerve cells within the brain communicate with each other over long distances has puzzled scientists for decades. The way networks of neurons connect and how individual cells react to incoming pulses in principle makes communication over large distances impossible. Scientists provide now a possible answer how the brain can function nonetheless: by exploiting the powers of resonance.
  • Precision control of the timing, structure and functions in molecular self-assembly
    Scientists have developed a new methodology that can easily and precisely control the timing of and the structure as well as functions obtained in self-assembly of π-conjugated molecules, which is a key technology in the field of organic electronics materials.
  • Snails tell of the rise and fall of the Tibetan Plateau
    The rise of the Tibetan plateau -- the largest topographic anomaly above sea level on Earth -- is important for both its profound effect on climate and its reflection of continental dynamics. Scientists have now employed a cutting-edge geochemical tool -- "clumped" isotope thermometry -- using modern and fossil snail shells to investigate the uplift history of the Zhada basin in southwestern Tibet.
  • The universal 'anger face': Each element makes you look physically stronger and more formidable
    The next time you get really mad, take a look in the mirror. See the lowered brow, the thinned lips and the flared nostrils? That's what social scientists call the "anger face," and it appears to be part of our basic biology as humans. Now, researchers have identified the functional advantages that caused the specific appearance of the anger face to evolve.
  • New model predicts patients with type 1 diabetes who will go on to develop major complications
    A new model has been developed for predicting which patients with type 1 diabetes will go on to develop major complications, through easily and routinely measured risk factors. "The risk estimates can guide surveillance recommendations, inform patients and allow efficient design and analysis of clinical trials," the author say.
  • Obese or overweight teens more likely to become smokers
    Weight status has no correlation with alcohol or marijuana use but is linked to regular cigarette smoking, a study examining whether overweight or obese teens are at higher risk for substance abuse has found. The authors note that the idea that smoking helps with weight reduction or appetite suppression is widely held, but is not true. "People who smoke crave fatty foods more," they say.
  • Green hotels lower environmental impact, increases profits
    Hotels certified in the sustainable building program Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED, helps the environment and boosts revenue for the hotel, according to a new study.
  • Cellphone addiction harming academic performance is 'an increasingly realistic possibility'
    Women college students spend an average of 10 hours a day on their cellphones, with men college students spending nearly eight hours, according to a study on cellphone activity. "As cellphone functions increase, addictions to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology become an increasingly realistic possibility," researchers noted.
  • NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope witnesses asteroid smashup
    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has spotted an eruption of dust around a young star, possibly the result of a smashup between large asteroids. This type of collision can eventually lead to the formation of planets.
  • Exit strategy: Is it time to rethink the VA healthcare system?
    As the federal government plans its exit strategy from the war, now may be the time for it to rethink its role in providing health care to veterans, says an expert. The VA incurs high fixed costs of a brick-and-mortar health care system, the largest salaried workforce in the federal government, and a large administration.
  • After Great Recession, Americans are unhappy, worried, pessimistic, study finds
    The protracted and uneven recovery from the Great Recession has led most Americans to conclude that the US economy has undergone a permanent change for the worse, according to a new national study. Seven in 10 now say the recession's impact is permanent, up from half in 2009 when the recession officially ended.
  • Researchers use NASA and other data to look into the heart of a solar storm
    Scientists found that the CME contained a rare piece of dense solar filament material. This filament coupled with an unusually fast speed led to the large amount of solar material observed.
  • Prions can trigger 'stuck' wine fermentations, researchers find
    A biochemical communication system that crosses from bacteria to yeast, making use of prions, has been discovered. It is responsible for a chronic winemaking problem known as 'stuck fermentation' and may also have implications for better understanding metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, in humans.
  • Flapping baby birds give clues to origin of flight
    The origin of flight is a contentious issue: some argue that tree-climbing dinosaurs learned to fly in order to avoid hard falls. Others favor the story that theropod dinosaurs ran along the ground and pumped their forelimbs to gain lift, eventually talking off. New evidence showing the early development of aerial righting in birds favors the tree-dweller hypothesis.
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