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- Predictive tool vital to sustainable environmental futures
A new predictive tool, which for the first time combines human perception of the environment with land-use planning and socioeconomic data, could help governments mitigate the impact of climate change in developing countries.
- Breast milk sugar may protect babies against deadly infection
A type of sugar found naturally in some women’s breast milk may protect newborn babies from infection with a potentially life threatening bacterium called Group B streptococcus, according to a new study. These bacteria are a common cause of meningitis in newborns and the leading cause of infection in the first three months of life globally.
- Hiding in plain sight: Vast reef found hiding behind Great Barrier Reef
Scientists working with laser data have discovered a vast reef behind the familiar Great Barrier Reef. High-resolution seafloor data provided by LiDAR-equipped aircraft have revealed great fields of unusual donut-shaped circular mounds, each 200-300 meters across and up to 10 meters deep at the center.
- Insecticide ryanodine: Building a chemical from the ground up
Chemists have significantly improved upon the synthesis of a molecule related to muscle and neuronal function. A research team has been busy trying to crack the puzzle of the insecticide ryanodine, a complex molecule first isolated from a tropical plant in the 1940s. Ryanodine paralyzes insects by binding to a class of calcium-channel receptors called ryanodine receptors. In humans, these receptors play critical roles in muscle and neuronal function.
- Volcanic eruption masked acceleration in sea level rise
The cataclysmic 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines masked the full impact of greenhouse gases on accelerating sea level rise, according to a new study.
- Allergy research: Response to house dust mites is age-dependent
In adults with a house dust mite allergy, a cascade of inflammatory signals on the surface of the airways leads to airway remodeling. This process cannot be influenced by standard cortisone therapy.
- Next steps in understanding brain function
As scientists around the globe join efforts to understand brain function, we enter the era of Big Data and stir up debate on how science is done and how it can affect us all.
- Electrons at the speed limit
Electronic components have become faster and faster over the years, thus making powerful computers and other technologies possible. Researchers have now investigated how fast electrons can ultimately be controlled with electric fields. Their insights are of importance for the petahertz electronics of the future.
- Banning tobacco sales near schools could reduce socioeconomic disparities, new study shows
Banning tobacco sales within 1,000 feet of schools could reduce socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco density across neighborhoods, according to a study.
- Important advance made with new approach to 'control' cancer, not eliminate it
Researchers have created a new drug delivery system that could improve the effectiveness of an emerging concept in cancer treatment -- to dramatically slow and control tumors on a long-term, sustained basis, not necessarily aiming for their complete elimination.
- Physicist's DNA chip offers big possibilities in cell, cancer studies
A physicist has developed a novel technology that not only sheds light on basic cell biology, but also may aid in the development of more effective cancer treatments or early diagnosis of disease.
- Blending wastewater may help California cope with drought
Researchers have developed an economic model that demonstrates how flexible wastewater treatment processes which blend varying levels of treated effluent can create a water supply that benefits crops and is affordable.
- Stiff arteries linked with memory problems, mouse study suggests
Using a new mouse model, researchers have found that stiffer arteries can also negatively affect memory and other critical brain processes. The findings may eventually reveal how arterial stiffness leads to Alzheimer’s and other diseases involving dementia.
- Scientists discover a ‘dark’ milky way
Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter.
- Sights set on the next generation of shuttle peptides to target the brain
There is a new and emerging field of drug transporters that have the capacity to reach the brain more efficiently, say researchers, bringing together chemistry, pharmacy and biomedicine.
- Microplastics discovered in the deep, open ocean
A unique study will provide valuable new insights into the concentrations of microplastics in the open ocean from surface to the sea bed, say scientists.
- Acute virus infection associated with sensory polyneuropathy, Zika experts say
A group of researchers has described the first case of sensory polyneuropathy associated with acute Zika virus infection. A large percentage of people suffering from Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or show only mild symptoms. But potential neurological complications can be dramatic.
- Researchers succeed in developing a genome editing technique that does not cleave DNA
A research team has succeeded in developing 'Target-AID', a genome editing technique that does not cleave the DNA. The technique offers, through high-level editing operation, a method to address the existing issues of genome editing. It is expected that the technique will be applied to gene therapy in the future in addition to providing a powerful tool for breeding useful organisms and conducting disease and drug-discovery research.
- New approach to computing boosts energy efficiency
A research project has launched a set of tools that will make computer systems more energy efficient – a critical issue for modern computing. Using the framework of the project programmers has been able to provide large data streaming aggregations 54 times more energy efficient than with standard implementations.
- Scientists shed new light on the role of calcium in learning, memory
While calcium’s importance for our bones and teeth is well known, its role in neurons—in particular, its effects on processes such as learning and memory—has been less well defined. A new study offers insights into how calcium in mitochondria -- the powerhouse of all cells -- can impact the development of the brain and adult cognition.
- Discovery of an ape virus in an Indonesian rodent species
The gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) is a medically important tool in cancer therapies. GALV is a retrovirus pathogenic to its host species, the southeast Asian lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) and thought to have originated from a cross-species transmission and may not originally be a primate virus at all. An international research team screened a wide range of rodents from southeast Asia for GALV-like sequences. The discovery of a new GALV in the grassland melomys (Melomys burtoni) from Indonesian New Guinea supports the hypothesis that this host species, and potentially related rodent lineages in Australia and Papua New Guinea, may have played a key role in the spread of GALV-like viruses.
- Physician advice to patients on e-cigarettes varies, reveals knowledge gaps, study shows
Researchers analyzed an online medical forum to better understand what patients want to know about e-cigarettes and how doctors respond to those questions.
- Experts say inexpensive drug could slow heart disease for type 1 diabetic patients
Scientists believe a drug commonly prescribed for type 2 diabetes could be routinely taken by type 1 diabetic patients to slow the development or delay heart disease.
- More to rainbows than meets the eye
In-depth review charts the scientific understanding of rainbows and highlights the many practical applications of this fascinating interaction between light, liquid and gas.
- New test needed to assess the quality, safety of sunglasses
Exposure to the sun may deteriorate your sunglasses over time and the lenses may become lighter and so alter the category under which they are classified. It may also diminish the impact resistance of lenses (how 'shatterproof' the lens is). Revision of standards is needed to test sunglasses quality and establish safe limits for the lenses' UV filters, according to new research.
- Designing ultrasound tools with Lego-like proteins
Ultrasound imaging is used around the world to help visualize developing babies and diagnose diseases. Sound waves bounce off the tissues, revealing their different densities and shapes. The next step in ultrasound technology is to image not just anatomy, but specific cells and molecules deeper in the body, such as those associated with tumors or bacteria in our gut. Now scientists say that [rotein engineering techniques might one day lead to colorful ultrasound images of cells deep within our bodies.
- Neuroscientists stand up for basic cell biology research
Clinical trials and translational medicine have certainly given people hope and rapid pathways to cures for some of humankind's most troublesome diseases, but now is not the time to overlook the power of basic research, says a neuroscientist.
- Symmetry crucial for building key biomaterial collagen in the lab
Functional human collagen has been impossible to create in the lab. Now, a team of researchers describes what may be the key to growing functional, natural collagen fibers outside of the body: symmetry.
- In sub-Saharan Africa, cancer can be an infectious disease
In a new report, a researcher shows that mothers who contract malaria during pregnancy may have children with increased risk of Burkitt's lymphoma.
- Solving a 48 year old mystery: Scientists grow noroviruses in human intestinal cell cultures
For the first time, scientists have grown human noroviruses, the leading viral cause of acute diarrhea worldwide, in human intestinal cell cultures in the lab.
- New diagnostic instrument sees deeper into the ear
A new device could greatly improve ear infection diagnoses and drastically reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions, a major cause of antibiotic resistance.
- Researchers find roots of modern humane treatment
Researchers have traced the roots of humane medical practices to a pioneering French physician who treated people with deformities as humans instead of 'monsters,' as they were commonly called.
- Manufacturing pharmaceutical and other valuable chemicals: Better decisions
A new decision-making tool helps producers of pharmaceutical and other valuable chemicals make the leap to an entirely new way of manufacturing.
- Admitting visible light, rejecting infrared heat
The transparency of glass to visible light makes it the most common way to let light into a building. But because glass is also transparent to near-infrared radiation -- windows also let in heat, giving rise to the well-known greenhouse effect. A coating that blocks 90 per cent of the heat from sunlight could be used to develop smart windows, say scientists.
- New study finds low transfer rates of pediatric burn patients in the United States
Nearly 127,000 kids in the U.S had burn injuries in 2012, research shows. Over half or 69,000 of these children had burns that are considered significant injuries by the American Burn Association.
- Finding new targets to treat vascular damage
There are no established drugs to improve angiogenesis in diabetes. However, researchers now have identified a gene called CITED2 in a molecular pathway that may offer targets for drugs that treat these conditions by strengthening angiogenesis.
- Finally, the brain sensor that turns down the heat
At long last, researchers have zeroed in on the neurons that act as the brain's internal thermostat.
- The refugee crisis in Europe: Challenges and possible solutions
Researchers have discussed the different ideological viewpoints of liberals and conservatives in Europe with respect to accepting refugees, highlighting why -- even though the continent is not bearing the 'brunt' of the refugee crisis -- it remains 'in the center of a political and social storm' related to refugees asylum.
- X-raying the Earth with waves from stormy weather 'bombs'
Using a detection network based in Japan, scientists have uncovered a rare type of deep-earth tremor that they attribute to a distant North Atlantic storm called a 'weather bomb.' The discovery marks the first time scientists have observed this particular tremor, known as an S wave microseism.
- Vouchers help get health goods to those most in need
Distributing health products through a simple voucher system is effective for screening out people who would otherwise accept but not use the free product, a study conducted in Kenya reports.
- Face shape is in the genes
Many of the characteristics that make up a person's face, such as nose size and face width, stem from specific genetic variations, reports a team of scientists.
- Chemistry professor explores outer regions of periodic table
Scientists have captured the fundamental chemistry of the element berkelium, or Bk on the periodic table.
- Targeting low-oxygen patches inside lung cancer tumors could help prevent drug resistance
With the right treatment schedule, medications known as hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) could help prevent drug resistance in a subtype of lung cancer, according to a study.
- Ecological consequences of amphetamine pollution in urban streams
Pharmaceutical and illicit drugs are present in streams in Baltimore, Maryland. At some sites, amphetamine concentrations are high enough to alter the base of the aquatic food web. So reports a new study which is one of the first to explore the ecological consequences of stimulant pollution in urban streams.
- Factors that might attract children to marijuana edibles
A new report identifies factors that make food attractive to children. Commissioned by the state Liquor and Cannabis Board, the report studied research on what makes food appeal to children and the role that marketing and branding play.
- Electron microscopy reveals how vitamin A enters the cell
Using a new, lightning-fast camera paired with an electron microscope, scientists have captured images of one of the smallest proteins in our cells to be "seen" with a microscope.
- Investigating the relationship between low physical activity and psychotic symptoms
Physical activity can help reduce cardiovascular disease and premature mortality in people with psychological problems. However, there is limited data on exercise in people with serious mental disorders, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This study explored whether complying with the World Health Organization recommendations of 150 minutes of moderate-vigorous exercise per week is related to psychotic symptoms or the diagnosis of a psychosis.
- A nanoscale wireless communication system via plasmonic antennas
A nanoscale wireless communication system uses plasmonic antennas to produce greater control and increased efficiency to an approach eyed for next-generation 'on-chip' communications technologies.
- A mammoth undertaking: Can de-extinction be ecologically responsible?
Can the woolly mammoth be brought back from the dead? Scientists say it's only a matter of time. A conservation ecologist and colleagues have examined ecologically responsible de-extinction, and what it means for science.
- Newly discovered 'multicomponent' virus can infect animals
Scientists have identified a new 'multicomponent' virus --one containing different segments of genetic material in separate particles -- that can infect animals. This new pathogen was isolated from several species of mosquitoes in Central and South America. GCXV does not appear to infect mammals; however, the team also isolated a related virus, Jingmen tick virus, from a nonhuman primate.
- Fracking chemicals exposure may harm fertility in female mice
Prenatal exposure to chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, may threaten fertility in female mice, according to a new study.
- Digital forms of dating violence are on the rise: What school nurses need to know
Many teens experience physical or sexual abuse within their romantic relationships and now dating violence can also be perpetrated digitally by harassing, stalking or controlling a romantic partner via technology and social media. School nurses are often some of the first to identify such problems and play an active role in preventing them from happening in the first place. Information on how school nurses can help these teens experiencing cyber abuse is described in a recent article.
- Children with food allergies predisposed to asthma, rhinitis
Children with a history of food allergy have a high risk of developing asthma and allergic rhinitis during childhood as well. The risk increases with the number of food allergies a child might have. Research suggests that rates of the common conditions asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema may be changing in the US.
- How telecommuting can cause leadership issues
Wherever your organization falls on the spectrum of telecommuting and virtual teams, new research reveals something about leadership and telecommuting that everyone should take into consideration.
- Altering stem cell perception of tissue stiffness may help treat musculoskeletal disorders
A new biomaterial can be used to study how and when stem cells sense the mechanics of their surrounding environment. With further development, this biomaterial could be used to control when immature stem cells differentiate into more specialized cells for regenerative and tissue-engineering-based therapies.
- Extending battery life for mobile devices: 'Braidio' tech lets mobile devices share power
Computer science researchers have introduced a new radio technology that allows small mobile devices to take advantage of battery power in larger devices nearby for communication.
- Virtual peer pressure works just as well as the real thing
Peer pressure is a proven social motivator. Researchers probed this decidedly human attribute and found that not only is virtual pressure from a computer-simulated peer just as motivating as the real thing, but that 'fake' competition is effective as well. Researchers formulated a mathematical model of human behavior that successfully predicted group responses across conditions -- one they hope researchers will use to overcome the difficult task of encouraging participation in scientific projects.
- New 'greener' method developed for producing some metals
While trying to develop a new battery, researchers find a whole new energy-efficient way to produce some metals without creating air pollution.
- Researchers find new role for cannabinoids in vision
A multidisciplinary team of researchers has improved our understanding of how cannabinoids, the active agent in marijuana, affect vision in vertebrates.
- Successful recycling: Protein quality control in the cell
A team of researchers has pinpointed the efficient mechanism used by cells to label faulty proteins. The findings provide important insights into the functioning of protein quality control in the cell.