Chemical NewsChemical News is your source of fresh chemistry data and insights. Chemical news are aggregated from multiple chemistry sources and presented here for convenient consumption.
Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
- Shape-shifters found in the Belt Supergroup: Revelations about Tappania plana
The rise of eukaryotic organisms (organisms with complex cells, or a single cell with a complex structure) is still a mystery, but researchers have compelling evidence that Tappania plana may represent one of the earliest eukaryotic fossils. Well-preserved Tappania plana fossils from a Montana field site could be a crown-group eukaryote, providing one of the first links from this period in the fossil record to extant eukaryotes.
- Acidity in atmosphere minimized to preindustrial levels
New research shows that human pollution of the atmosphere with acid is now almost back to the level that it was before the pollution started with industrialization in the 1930s. The results come from studies of the Greenland ice sheet.
- Pluto's 'heart' sheds light on possible buried ocean
Ever since NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew by Pluto last year, evidence has been mounting that the dwarf planet may have a liquid ocean beneath its icy shell. Now, by modeling the impact dynamics that created a massive crater on Pluto's surface, a team of researchers has made a new estimate of how thick that liquid layer might be.
- Childhood muscular fitness and adult metabolic syndrome
About 20-25 percent of adults have the metabolic syndrome and have increased risk of developing both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In a new longitudinal study, investigators examined associations between childhood muscular fitness (strength, endurance, and power) and metabolic syndrome -- the latter assessed once they reached adulthood.
- Does physical activity lower the risk of bacterial infections?
The risk of viral infections is known to be affected by physical activity, but little information is available regarding the more serious infections caused by bacteria. In a new study, investigators examined the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and suspected bacterial infections during a one-year follow up.
- Yoga may not count toward 30 minutes of daily physical activity, but may have other benefits
Hatha yoga is an increasingly popular form of physical activity and meditative practice in the U.S. It is important to understand the calorie cost and intensity of yoga in relation to the national physical activity guidelines, which generally encourage 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week.
- How natural selection acted on one penguin species over the past quarter century
Biologists combed through 28 years' worth of data on Magellanic penguins to search for signs that natural selection -- one of the main drivers of evolution -- may be acting on certain penguin traits.
- Supporting employees to stand up, sit less and move more
Employers can implement an intervention to substantially reduce the sitting time of office workers both during work hours and across the day.
- Colorful demise of a sun-like star
Our sun will eventually burn out and shroud itself with stellar debris, but not for another 5 billion years.
- Team compares effectiveness of four PD-L1 tests
In a recent study, a research team compared the performance of the four available PD-L1 assay tests. They found that one of the assays failed to reveal comparable levels of PD-L1, a tumor-promoting protein, while three others revealed comparable levels.
- Ice Man, Ötzi: A treacherous murder with links to Central Italy
The copper used to make Ötzi's axe blade did not come from the Alpine region as had previously been supposed, but from ore mined in southern Tuscany. Ötzi was probably not involved in working the metal himself, as the high levels of arsenic and copper found in his hair had, until now, led us to assume. His murder over 5,000 years ago seems to have been brought about due to a personal conflict a few days before his demise, and the man from the ice, despite his normal weight and active life-style, suffered from extensive vascular calcification.
- Greenland rising as ice melts
A new study on the Greenland Ice Sheet provides valuable insight on climate change, using unique research methods to establish new estimates of ice loss for both modern and ancient times, says geologists.
- Melatonin, biological clock keep singing fish on time
In the 1980s, people living on houseboats in the San Francisco Bay were puzzled by a droning hum of unknown origin that started abruptly in the late evening and stopped suddenly in the morning. A lengthy investigation revealed the culprit: male plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) that sing at night to attract mates. The fish, which can grow to 15 inches in length, live along the Pacific coast from Alaska to Baja, California.
- Engineers create room-temperature multiferroic material
Multiferroics -- materials that exhibit both magnetic and electric order -- are of interest for next-generation computing but difficult to create because the conditions conducive to each of those states are usually mutually exclusive. And in most multiferroics found to date, their respective properties emerge only at extremely low temperatures. Now researchers have combined two non-multiferroic materials, using the best attributes of both to create a new room-temperature multiferroic.
- Science can shape healthy city planning
The health gains achieved if cities were designed so that shops, facilities, work and public transportation were within walking distance of most residents have now been quantified by researchers. In a series of articles, researchers tackle how to implement timely research into city design, planning and policy to improve the health of a city’s residents.
- Violence against police officers can trigger increased discrimination in police stops
Incidents of extreme violence against police officers can lead to periods of substantially increased racial disparities in the use of force by police, new research indicates.
- Scientists find twisting 3-D raceway for electrons in nanoscale crystal slices
An exotic 3-D racetrack for electrons in ultrathin slices of a crystal has been observed for the first time, by a group of researchers. The ultimate goal of this research is to approach the lossless conduction of another class of materials, known as superconductors, but without the need for the extreme, freezing temperatures that superconductors require.
- Stronger turbine blades with molybdenum silicides
Molybdenum silicides can improve the efficiency of turbine blades in ultrahigh-temperature combustion systems, researchers have discovered.
- Oxygen levels were key to early animal evolution, strongest evidence now shows
It has long puzzled scientists why, after 3 billion years of nothing more complex than algae, complex animals suddenly started to appear on Earth. Now, a team of researchers has put forward some of the strongest evidence yet to support the hypothesis that high levels of oxygen in the oceans were crucial for the emergence of skeletal animals 550 million years ago.
- How to power up graphene implants without frying cells
In the future, our health may be monitored and maintained by tiny sensors and drug dispensers, deployed within the body and made from graphene -- one of the strongest, lightest materials in the world. Graphene is composed of a single sheet of carbon atoms, linked together like razor-thin chicken wire, and its properties may be tuned in countless ways, making it a versatile material for tiny, next-generation implants.
- Automated screening for childhood communication disorders
For children with speech and language disorders, early-childhood intervention can make a great difference in their later academic and social success. But many such children -- one study estimates 60 percent -- go undiagnosed until kindergarten or even later.
- To produce biopharmaceuticals on demand, just add water
Researchers have created tiny freeze-dried pellets that include all of the molecular machinery needed to translate DNA into proteins, which could form the basis for on-demand production of drugs and vaccines.
- Landmark map reveals the genetic wiring of cellular life
A new map breaks away from the old way of studying genes one at a time, showing how genes interact in groups to shed light on the genetic roots of diseases.
- Vitamin B levels during pregnancy linked to eczema risk in child
Infants whose mothers had a higher level of a particular type of vitamin B during pregnancy have a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months, new research has shown. The study is the first to link maternal serum levels of nicotinamide, a naturally occurring vitamin, and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the child.
- Apple, lettuce can remedy garlic breath
Garlic -- consumers either love or hate the taste, but one thing is for certain, no one likes it when the scent of it sticks around on their breath. Now, garlic lovers may have a new solution to their halitosis problem. A study has found that eating raw apple or lettuce may help reduce garlic breath.
- Caspian terns discovered nesting 1,000 miles farther to the north than ever recorded in Alaska
In the late summer of 2016, a field team monitored Caspian tern chicks through to fledging in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in Alaska. This discovery of Caspian terns breeding above the Arctic Circle in the Chukchi Sea is nearly 1,000 miles farther north than previously recorded – a strikingly large jump in the range of nesting for this (or any) species.
- Pediatric atopic dermatitis may benefit from early immune intervention
An association between pediatric eczema and large abnormalities in non-lesional skin and multi T lymphocyte axes activation has been uncovered by researchers.
- Precision medicine trial first of its kind to show benefit to patients
A clinical trial for types of advanced cancer is the first of its kind to show that precision medicine – or tailoring treatment for individual people – can slow down the time it takes for a tumor to grow back, according to research.
- Underwater 'Cystoseira zosteroides' forests, the Mediterranean algae, threatened by human activity impact
The effects of an intense storm every twenty-five years could make the marine alga populations of Cystoseira zosteroides disappear – an endemic species of the Mediterranean with great ecological value for the biodiversity of marine benthos – according to a new article.
- Unique molecular atlas of pancreas produced
The first molecular map of the genes that are active in the various cells of the human pancreas has now been produced by researchers. They have also revealed differences in genetic activity between people with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls.
- New hope in fight against aggressive, often hard to treat brain tumor
A potential way of stopping one of the most aggressive types of brain tumor from spreading has now been identified by researchers, which could lead the way to better patient survival. Glioblastoma is one of the most common types of malignant brain tumors in adults. They are fast growing and can spread easily. The tumor has threadlike tendrils that extend into other parts of the brain making it difficult to remove it all.
- Ouch! Avoiding failure leads to missed opportunities for children with ADHD
Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are potentially more exposed to reproaches than typically developing children, explain researchers. A behavioral experiment on reward and punishment highlights the cumulative effect of punishment in children with ADHD.
- Multifaceted genetic impact of training
Endurance training changes the activity of thousands of genes and give rise to a multitude of altered DNA-copies, RNA, researchers report. The study also nuances the concept of muscle memory.
- Lipid receptor fosters infection of the uterus in bitches
In the female dog, cells of the uterus can accumulate lipid droplets to form so-called foamy epithelial cells during late metoestrus. These cells produce a hormone that is involved in the implantation of the embryo in the uterus. A team of researchers has now shown for the first time that the factor assisting the cells in lipid accumulation also facilitates the binding of bacteria to the epithelial cells, resulting in serious infections of the uterus in female dogs.
- Alternative oxidase from a marine animal works in mammals, combats bacterial sepsis
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase from a sea-squirt works as a safety valve for stressed mitochondria. This property enables it to stop the runaway inflammatory process that leads to multiple organ failure and eventual death in bacterial sepsis.
- Long-term monitoring of sapovirus infection in wild carnivores in the Serengeti
Sapoviruses are an emerging group of viruses of the group of caliciviruses and well known agents of gastric enteritis, but very little is currently known about their role in wildlife ecology or the genetic strains that infect wildlife. Research findings by a group of scientists describe for the first time, sapovirus infection in African wild carnivores in the Serengeti ecosystem, including the spotted hyena, the African lion and the bat-eared fox. The results from two decades of monitoring revealed several sapovirus outbreaks of infection in spotted hyenas and, counter-intuitively, that the risk of infection declined as group sizes increased.
- Specific trauma experiences contribute to women's alcohol use, differs by race
Trauma exposure has consistently been reported as a risk factor for alcohol use and related problems. Further, racial differences in alcohol use, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and trauma exposure between European American (EA) and African American (AA) women have been reported previously. This study sought to identify racial differences in alcohol involvement, and to examine the risk conferred by specific trauma exposures and PTSD for different stages of alcohol involvement in EA and AA women.
- Older adults with long-term alcohol dependence lose neurocognitive abilities
Heavy drinking can lead to neurophysiological and cognitive changes ranging from disrupted sleep to more serious neurotoxic effects. Aging can also contribute to cognitive decline. Several studies on the interaction of current heavy drinking and aging have had varied results. This study sought to elucidate the relations among age, heavy drinking, and neurocognitive function.
- Resonance in Rainbow Bridge
Utah's iconic Rainbow Bridge hums with natural and human-made vibrations, according to a new study. The study characterizes the different ways the bridge vibrates and what frequencies and energy sources cause the rock structure to resonate. The vibrations are small, according to a geology and geophysics professor, but the study provides a baseline measure of the bridge's structural integrity and shows how human activities can rattle solid rock.
- 100 million prescription opioids go unused each year following wisdom teeth removal, study estimates
More than half of opioids prescribed to patients following surgical tooth extraction – such as the removal of impacted wisdom teeth – were left unused by patients, research shows. The authors say the surplus is troubling given the ongoing opioid epidemic and evidence showing that individuals who abuse prescription opioids often use leftover pills that were prescribed for friends or family members.
- Fracking causes earthquakes, but new research finds way to make it safer
Injecting wastewater deep underground as a byproduct of oil and gas extraction techniques that include fracking causes human-made earthquakes, new research has found. The study, which also showed that the risk can be mitigated, has the potential to transform oil and gas industry practices.
- Marriage made in sunlight: Invention merges solar with liquid battery
As solar cells produce a greater proportion of total electric power, a fundamental limitation remains: the dark of night when solar cells go to sleep. Lithium-ion batteries are too expensive a solution to use on something as massive as the electric grid. A professor of chemistry has a better idea: integrating the solar cell with a large-capacity battery.
- Unique feeding habits of whales revealed
Whales are the biggest animals to ever have existed on Earth, and yet some subsist on creatures the size of a paper clip. It's a relatively common factoid, but, in truth, how they do this is only just being uncovered, thanks to new technologies.
- Tattoo therapy could ease chronic disease
A temporary tattoo to help control a chronic disease might someday be possible, according to scientists who tested newly created antioxidant nanoparticles.
- Researchers update understanding of damaging liver disease
A new article updates the medical community on a potentially devastating liver disease that afflicts approximately 29,000 Americans. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, or PSC, is a condition that damages the ducts that carry digestive bile from the liver to the small intestine. Many individuals affected by this disease eventually require a liver transplant for continued survival.
- One single biopsy not sufficient to guide treatment decisions in prostate cancer, say researchers
While the majority of prostate cancers are slow growing and not fatal, some are aggressive and lethal. Genomic fingerprinting can help predict a tumor's aggressiveness and tailor treatment plans, report researchers.
- Different tree species use the same genes to adapt to climate change, researchers find
Both pine and spruce use the same suite of 47 genes to adapt to geographic variation in temperature, and to appropriately time acquisition of cold hardiness -- a trait that allows plants to tolerate the adverse conditions of winter -- large-scale analysis has revealed.
- ALMA Explores the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Deepest ever millimeter observations of early Universe
International teams of astronomers have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to explore the distant corner of the Universe first revealed in the iconic images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). These new ALMA observations are significantly deeper and sharper than previous surveys at millimetre wavelengths. They clearly show how the rate of star formation in young galaxies is closely related to their total mass in stars. They also trace the previously unknown abundance of star-forming gas at different points in time, providing new insights into the “Golden Age” of galaxy formation approximately 10 billion years ago.
- X-ray laser glimpses how electrons dance with atomic nuclei in materials
The coupling between electrons and phonons determines how efficiently solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. It also plays key roles in superconductors that transfer electricity without losses, topological insulators that conduct electricity only on their surfaces, materials that drastically change their electrical resistance when exposed to a magnetic field, and more.
- Melanoma tumors use interferon-gamma mutations to fight immunotherapy
Melanoma tumors use genetic mutations in a prominent immune response pathway to resist the immunotherapy ipilimumab, researchers report. These findings open the door to testing an array of IFN-y genes prospectively as a predictor for response to ipilimumab and for exploring new combinations to defeat IFN-y-related resistance.
- Ancient remedy becomes novel approach to treating clostridium difficile infection
The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection, clinical presentation of infection, diagnosis and various therapies including fecal microbiota transplant have been the focus of recent research, all laid out in a new report.
- Trophy hunting of lions can conserve the species, report suggests
Trophy hunters can play an important role in lion conservation, researchers have shown. These findings may surprise the public, but most lion conservationists think trophy hunting could play a key role in conserving this species because lions need large areas to thrive, and managing this land is expensive. The new work shows land under long-term management for trophy hunting can help fill this shortfall.
- Researchers identify protein critical in causing chronic UTIs
Researchers have identified a way to prevent chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). Vaccinating mice against a key protein that bacteria use to latch onto the bladder and cause UTIs reduces severe disease, according to researchers.
- Bizarre new species of extinct reptile shows dinosaurs copied body, skull shapes of distant relatives
Iconic dinosaur shapes were present for at least a hundred million years on our planet in animals before those dinosaurs themselves actually appeared.
- New ALS discovery: Scientists reverse protein clumping involved in neurodegenerative conditions
Stabilizing a protein called SOD1 can help reverse protein clumping in the types of neurons affected by the fatal neurodegenerative condition Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, report researchers.
- New views of intracellular channel that controls skeletal muscle
New details of the structure and function of an intracellular channel that controls the contraction of skeletal muscle have been uncovered by new research. The findings could lead to new treatments for a variety of muscle disorders.
- With great power comes great laser science
Scientists have found a way to compress ultrashort laser pulses, increasing its peak power to half a terawatt – which is equivalent to the output of hundreds of nuclear reactors.
- Farming with forests
In the race to feed a growing population, it is important to consider sustainability. Researchers are promoting the practice of agroforestry—the intentional planting of trees and shrubs with crops or livestock—to achieve sustainability goals. A number of practical and policy challenges have prevented adoption of agroforestry practices on a large scale in the U.S. If adopted more widely, agroforestry could benefit wildlife, soil and water quality, and the global climate.
- Cesarean section carries increased risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism (VTE)
Women are four times more likely to suffer a VTE after a cesarean-section compared to a vaginal birth, according to a new study. Roughly one-third of all births in Europe and North America now occur via cesarean section.
- Researchers take a new step towards non-antibiotic bladder infection therapies
Cystitis is a common infection, particularly in women. Although usually treatable with antibiotics, patients can be plagued with recurrent and chronic infections. When ascending to the kidneys, bladder infections can turn into a life threatening complications, a particular concern in case of multidrug-resistant strains of the causative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterium. A new step towards non-antibiotic bladder infection therapies has now been taken by researchers.