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Chemical News is your source of fresh chemistry data and insights. Chemical news are aggregated from multiple chemistry sources and presented here for convenient consumption.
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  • Improving rechargeable batteries by focusing on graphene oxide paper
    An engineering team has discovered some of graphene oxide's important properties that can improve sodium- and lithium-ion flexible batteries.
  • 'Tipping points' for sea level rise related flooding determined
    By 2050, a majority of US coastal areas are likely to be threatened by 30 or more days of flooding each year due to dramatically accelerating impacts from sea level rise, according to a new study.
  • Glimpsing pathway of sunlight to electricity
    Four pulses of laser light on nanoparticle photocells in a spectroscopy experiment has opened a window on how captured sunlight can be converted into electricity. The work, which potentially could inspire devices with improved efficiency in solar energy conversion, was performed on photocells that used lead-sulfide quantum dots as photoactive semiconductor material.
  • New, tighter timeline confirms ancient volcanism aligned with dinosaurs' extinction
    A definitive geological timeline shows that a series of massive volcanic explosions 66 million years ago played a role in the extinction event that claimed Earth's non-avian dinosaurs, and challenges the dominant theory that a meteorite impact was the sole cause of the extinction.
  • Physicists characterize electronic, magnetic structure in transition metal oxides
    Scientists have characterized the electronic and magnetic structure in artificially synthesized materials called transition metal oxides.
  • Instant-Start Computers Possible with New Breakthrough
    If data could be encoded without current, it would require much less energy and make things like low-power, instant-on computing a ubiquitous reality. Scientists have made a breakthrough in that direction with a room-temperature magnetoelectric memory device. Equivalent to one computer bit, it exhibits the holy grail of next-generation nonvolatile memory: magnetic switchability, in two steps, with nothing but an electric field.
  • Dust devil and the details: Spinning up a storm on Mars
    Spinning up a dust devil in the thin air of Mars requires a stronger updraft than is needed to create a similar vortex on Earth, researchers show. “To start a dust devil on Mars you need convection, a strong updraft,” said Bryce Williams, an atmospheric science graduate student at UAH. “We looked at the ratio between convection and surface turbulence to find the sweet spot where there is enough updraft to overcome the low level wind and turbulence. And on Mars, where we think the process that creates a vortex is more easily disrupted by frictional dissipation – turbulence and wind at the surface – you need twice as much convective updraft as you do on Earth.” Williams and UAH’s Dr. Udaysankar Nair looked for the dust devil sweet spot by combining dat
  • In one aspect of vision, computers catch up to primate brain
    For decades, neuroscientists have been trying to design computer networks that can mimic visual skills such as recognizing objects, which the human brain does very accurately and quickly. Until now, no computer model has been able to match the primate brain at visual object recognition during a brief glance. Now neuroscientists have found that one of the latest generation of 'deep neural networks' matches the primate brain.
  • Ibuprofen use leads to extended lifespan in several species, study shows
    A common over-the-counter drug that tackles pain and fever may also hold keys to a longer, healthier life, according to a Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientist. Regular doses of ibuprofen extended the lifespan of multiple species.
  • Origin of long-standing space mystery revealed: Origin of the 'theta aurora'
    Scientists have solved a long-standing space mystery - the origin of the 'theta aurora'. Auroras are the most visible manifestation of the Sun's effect on Earth. They are seen as colorful displays in the night sky, known as the Northern or Southern Lights. They are caused by the solar wind, a stream of plasma - electrically charged atomic particles - carrying its own magnetic field, interacting with the earth's magnetic field. Normally, the main region for this impressive display is the 'auroral oval', which lies at around 65-70 degrees north or south of the equator, encircling the polar caps. However, auroras can occur at even higher latitudes. One type is known as a 'theta aurora' because seen from above it looks like the Greek letter theta - an oval with a line crossing through the center.
  • Revealing the quantum geometry of the graphene lattice
    Among the most revolutionary concepts of modern physics is that the laws of nature are inherently non-local. One striking manifestation of this non-locality was famously predicted by Aharonov and Bohm: a magnetic field confined to the interior of a solenoid can alter the behavior of electrons outside it, shifting the phase of their wave-like interference although they never directly encounter the magnetic field. Originally regarded as a mere curiosity, such "geometric phase shifts" are now known to have dramatic consequences for electron transport in solid-state materials, e.g., allowing unimpeded current flow along the edges of a material that is insulating in the bulk.
  • Study fuels hope for natural gas cars: Metal organic framework candidates for methane storage identified
    Cars that run on natural gas are touted as efficient and environmentally friendly, but getting enough gas onboard to make them practical is a hurdle. A new study promises to help. Researchers have calculated the best candidates among possible metal organic frameworks to store natural gas for cars.
  • Crows are smarter than you think: Crows join humans, apes and monkeys in exhibiting advanced rational thinking
    Crows have the brain power to solve higher-order, relational-matching tasks, and they can do so spontaneously, according to new research. That means crows join humans, apes and monkeys in exhibiting advanced relational thinking, according to the research.
  • How will climate change transform agriculture?
    Climate change impacts will require major but very uncertain transformations of global agriculture systems by mid-century, according to new research.
  • Birds sensed severe storms and fled before tornado outbreak
    Golden-winged warblers apparently knew in advance that a storm that would spawn 84 confirmed tornadoes and kill at least 35 people last spring was coming, according to a new report. The birds left the scene well before devastating supercell storms blew in.
  • Genetic ancestry of different ethnic groups varies across the United States
    The United States is a melting pot of different racial and ethnic groups, but it has not been clear how the genetic ancestry of these populations varies across different geographic regions. In a landmark study, researchers analyzed the genomes of more than 160,000 African-Americans, Latinos, and European-Americans, providing novel insights into the subtle differences in genetic ancestry across the United States.
  • Kepler proves it can still find planets
    To paraphrase Mark Twain, the report of the Kepler spacecraft's death was greatly exaggerated. Despite a malfunction that ended its primary mission in May 2013, Kepler is still alive and working. The evidence comes from the discovery of a new super-Earth using data collected during Kepler's 'second life.'
  • Malnutrition a hidden epidemic among elders
    Health-care systems and providers are not attuned to older adults' malnutrition risk, and ignoring malnutrition exacts a toll on hospitals, patients, and payers, according to experts. A new article points out that aging is a risk factor for malnutrition and highlights opportunities to improve nutrition awareness, interventions, and policy priorities.
  • 550-million-year-old fossils provide new clues about fossil formation
    A new study is challenging accepted ideas about how ancient soft-bodied organisms become part of the fossil record. Findings suggest that bacteria involved in the decay of those organisms play an active role in how fossils are formed -- often in a matter of just a few tens to hundreds of years. Understanding the relationship between decay and fossilization will inform future study and help researchers interpret fossils in a new way.
  • New technique provides novel approach to diagnosing ciliopathies
    It is difficult to diagnose, study and treat cioliopathies, because it is difficult to examine cilia in molecular detail. Now researchers report that they have captured the highest-resolution images of human cilia ever, using a new approach.
  • 'Cool' new method for probing how molecules fold
    A powerful new system for studying how proteins and other biological molecules form and lose their natural folded structures has been developed by scientists. Using the new system, researchers can force a sample of molecules to unfold and refold by boosting and then dropping the temperature, so quickly that even some of the fastest molecular folding events can be tracked.
  • Trigger mechanism for recovery after spinal cord injury revealed
    After an incomplete spinal cord injury, the body can partially recover basic motor function. So-called muscle spindles and associated sensory circuits back to the spinal cord promote the establishment of novel neuronal connections after injury. This circuit-level mechanism behind the process of motor recovery was elucidated by recent research; findings may contribute to designing novel strategies for treatment after spinal cord injuries.
  • Scientists map out how childhood brain tumours relapse
    The unique genetic paths that the childhood brain tumor medulloblastoma follows when the disease comes back has been mapped out, researchers report. Scientists looked at biopsies from the relapsed tumours of 29 patients. They found a range of changes that only appeared when the disease returned and were responsible for the cancer becoming more aggressive.
  • Islet cell transplantation restores type 1 diabetics' blood sugar defense mechanisms
    Type 1 diabetes patients who have developed low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) as a complication of insulin treatments over time are able to regain normal internal recognition of the condition after receiving pancreatic islet cell transplantation, according to a new study.
  • Researchers hope patent can pave way to future treatments of heart, lung disease
    Researchers have received a patent for its use of a peptide that has been shown to prevent or reduce damage to intestinal tissue. Their ongoing work may have far-reaching implications, including new ways to treat tissue damaged during a heart attack or stroke, and even a possible cure for cancer.
  • When Planning to Eat Right This New Year, Get Your Advice from Educated and Trained Experts
    For many people, the New Year is an opportunity for a fresh look at life – a time to resolve to return to or even begin a healthy lifestyle. But with an internet full of misinformation and some “professionals” with little, if any, formal education in nutrition, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics encourages everyone to seek their healthy eating information from educated, trained and qualified nutrition experts – registered dietitian nutritionists.
  • Improving forecasts for rain-on-snow flooding
    Researchers hope to better forecast the flood risk from a combination of heavy rains and melting snow, which are most of the worst West Coast floods. Many of the worst West Coast winter floods pack a double punch. Heavy rains and melting snow wash down the mountains together to breach riverbanks, wash out roads and flood buildings.
  • Mutations prevent programmed cell death
    Programmed cell death is a mechanism that causes defective and potentially harmful cells to destroy themselves. It serves a number of purposes in the body, including the prevention of malignant tumor growth. Now, researchers have discovered a previously unknown mechanism for regulating programmed cell death. They have also shown that patients with lymphoma often carry mutations in this signal pathway.
  • Hearing capabilities of bushcrickets, mammals
    In the animal kingdom many species must identify environmental sounds to increase their chance of survival. Therefore, animals have evolved a vast diversity of mechanisms to detect sounds. Acoustic communication occurs in many groups of animals. Yet, due to their biological diversity, insect species constitute a large percentage of the acoustic community -- particularly cicadas, crickets, katydids and grasshoppers. A detailed review of the functional mechanics of katydid (bushcricket) hearing, draws distinct parallels between the ear of the bushcricket and tetrapods.
  • Is there a better way to treat substance use in adolescents with co-occurring mental health disorders?
    The majority (55-74%) of adolescents entering substance use treatment also have psychiatric disorders, such as depression, ADHD and trauma-related problems. Unfortunately, these youth face poorer treatment outcomes (e.g., relapse), and their mental health issues are often not directly addressed. Furthermore, few studies exist to guide those clinicians who would like to use integrated care to treat adolescent with co-occurring disorders. A new review proposes that the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), which is a combination of cognitive-behavioral and family therapies, may be an ideal treatment method for this patient population.
  • Expectant fathers experience prenatal hormone changes
    Impending fatherhood can lower two hormones -- testosterone and estradiol -- for men, even before their babies are born, a new study found. This is the first study to show that the decline may begin even before the child's birth, during the transition to fatherhood.
  • Getting bot responders into shape
    Scientists are tackling one of the biggest barriers to the use of robots in emergency response: energy efficiency. They are developing technology that will dramatically improve the endurance of legged robots, helping them operate for long periods while performing the types of locomotion most relevant to disaster response scenarios.
  • Using power of computers to harness human genome may provide clues into Ebola virus
    New work is blending the power of computers with biology to use the human genome to remove much of the guesswork involved in discovering cures for diseases. A corresponding article describes how key genes that are present in our cells could be used to develop drugs for Ebola virus disease.
  • The Greenland Ice Sheet: Now in HD
    The highest-resolution maps of the Greenland Ice Sheet are debuting. Starting with Worldview satellite imagery, The maps are already revealing previously unknown features on the ice sheet.
  • Electron spin could be the key to high-temperature superconductivity
    Scientists have taken a significant step in our understanding of superconductivity by studying the strange quantum events in a unique superconducting material.
  • High-dose flu vaccine superior for frail elderly living in long-term care facilities
    The high-dose flu vaccine is significantly better than the regular flu shot at boosting the immune response to the flu virus in frail, older residents of long-term care facilities, according to the results of a new study. It is the first evaluation of the vaccine in long-term care residents, which is the population most vulnerable to flu-related death.
  • Fine particulate air pollution linked with increased autism risk
    Women exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter specifically during pregnancy -- particularly during the third trimester -- may face up to twice the risk of having a child with autism than mothers living in areas with low particulate matter, according to a study. The greater the exposure, the greater the risk, researchers found. It was the first US-wide study exploring the link between airborne particulate matter and autism.
  • Early caregiving experiences have long-term effects on social relationships, achievement
    A new study has found that sensitive caregiving in the first three years of life predicts an individual's social competence and academic achievement, not only during childhood and adolescence, but into adulthood. The study used information from 243 individuals who were born into poverty, came from a range of racial/ethnic backgrounds, and had been followed from birth to age 32.
  • Quality of parent-infant relationships, early childhood shyness predict teen anxiety
    Social anxiety is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents. A new study has found that together, the quality of parent-infant relationships and early childhood shyness predict the likelihood of social anxiety in adolescence. In this longitudinal study, researchers studied 165 European-American, middle- to upper-middle-class adolescents who were recruited as infants.
  • Subtle but important memory function affected by preterm birth
    A study of children born prematurely has found differences in a subtle but important aspect of memory: the ability to form and retrieve memories about context. The study examined 33 8-to 10-year olds using magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volume of the hippocampi. The results suggest that the maturational state of the hippocampus at the time of birth influences the maturation of certain memory functions even at 8- to 10-years old.
  • Moms of food-allergic kids need dietician's support
    Discovering your child has a severe food allergy can be a terrible shock. Even more stressful can be determining what foods your child can and cannot eat, and constructing a new diet which might eliminate entire categories of foods. Providing parents with detailed, individual advice from a dietician is a key component of effective food allergy care, experts say.
  • Wild blueberries (bilberries) can help tackle adverse effects of high-fat diet
    Eating bilberries diminishes the adverse effects of a high-fat diet, according to a recent study. For the first time, bilberries were shown to have beneficial effects on both blood pressure and nutrition-derived inflammatory responses.
  • Protection of mouse gut by mucus depends on microbes
    The quality of the colon mucus in mice depends on the composition of gut microbiota, reports a research team whose work suggests that bacteria in the gut affect mucus barrier properties in ways that can have implications for health and disease.
  • Why do parents who usually vaccinate their children hesitate or refuse?
    Even parents who are not "vaccine refusers" and who usually comply with the routine vaccination programs may hesitate or refuse to vaccinate their children based on poor communication from the relevant healthcare provider, as well as concerns about the safety of the vaccine, a study concludes.
  • Why are UK teenagers skipping school?
    Analysis of the results of a large-scale survey reveals the extent of truancy in English secondary schools and sheds light on the mental health of the country’s teens.
  • Surprise gene finding on 'back or belly' decision in sea anemones
    A gene that controls one of the earliest decisions in the life of an animal, where to place the back and the belly on the body, is identified in a sea anemone by researchers.
  • Pilot plant for removal of extreme gas charges from deep waters installed
    Being part of the mining area Herrerias in Andalusia, deep waters of Pit Lake Guadiana show extremely high concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide. In the case of a spontaneous ebullition, human beings close-by would be jeopardized. To demonstrate the danger and the possible solution, scientists have constructed a pilot plant for degassing. A fountain pulls deep water through a pipe to the surface, where the gas can escape from the water. The buoyancy produced by the bubbles provides the energy required for driving the flow.
  • Could trophoblasts be the immune cells of pregnancy?
    Trophoblasts, cells that form an outer layer around a fertilized egg and develop into the major part of the placenta, have now been shown to respond to inflammatory danger signals, researchers have found.
  • Researchers discover protein protecting against chlorine
    Chlorine is a common disinfectant that is used to kill bacteria, for example in swimming pools and drinking water supplies. Our immune system also produces chlorine, which causes proteins in bacteria to lose their natural folding. These unfolded proteins then begin to clump and lose their function. Now researchers have discovered a protein in the intestinal bacterium E. coli that protects bacteria from chlorine. In the presence of chlorine, it tightly bonds with other proteins, thus preventing them from coagulating.
  • Deforestation threatens species richness in streams
    With a population of 1.3 billion, China is under immense pressure to convert suitable areas into arable land in order to ensure a continued food supply for its people. Accordingly, China is among the top countries in the world in terms of the extent and intensity of land use change. Deforestation may change the water surface runoff conditions, leading to a negative impact on the occurrence of microorganisms in rivers and streams.
  • Lynx take lunch breaks
    Whether a lynx hunts by day or by night and how active it is overall depend primarily on the behavior of the wild cat's most important prey and its individual traits - lighting conditions, on the other hand, do not play a major role in its basic behavioral patterns. This is the key finding of a new study in which scientists fitted GPS collars and motion sensors on 38 free-ranging lynx.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for bladder cancer leads to good long-term cancer control
    Long-term survival rates following laparoscopic surgery for bladder cancer are comparable to those of open surgery, according to a study. The findings, which come from the largest study to date with long-term follow-up after this type of minimally invasive surgery, indicate that prospective randomized trials comparing these two bladder cancer surgeries are warranted.
  • How does prostate cancer form? Parkinson's Link?
    The cause of prostate cancer may be linked to Parkinson’s disease through a common enzyme family called sirtuins. Finding an enzyme that regulates this process could provide excellent new prevention approaches for this common malignancy, researchers say. Sirtuin enzymes have been implicated in neurodegeneration, obesity, heart disease, and cancer.
  • Clearing tropical rainforests distorts Earth's wind and water systems, packs climate wallop beyond carbon
    A new study released today presents powerful evidence that clearing trees not only spews carbon into the atmosphere, but also triggers major shifts in rainfall and increased temperatures worldwide that are just as potent as those caused by current carbon pollution. Further, the study finds that future agricultural productivity across the globe is at risk from deforestation-induced warming and altered rainfall patterns.
  • Life expectancy increases globally as death toll falls from major diseases
    People are living much longer worldwide than they were two decades ago, as death rates from infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease have fallen, according to a new, first-ever journal publication of country-specific cause-of-death data for 188 countries.
  • New hope for rare disease drug development
    Using combinations of well-known approved drugs has for the first time been shown to be potentially safe in treating a rare disease, according to the results of a clinical trial. The study also shows some promising preliminary results for the efficacy of the drug combination.
  • Survey of the general population in France identifies knowledge gaps in the perception of lung cancer
    A prospective nationwide survey on perceptions of lung cancer in the general population of France highlights a need for increased public education on the benefits of lung cancer screening, the good survival rates of early-stage disease and the improved outcomes with new therapeutic strategies, including targeted-therapies.
  • Targeted next-generation sequencing reveals a high number of genomic mutations in advanced malignant
    Next generation sequencing in malignant pleural mesothelioma tumors shows a complex mutational setting with a high number of genetic alterations in genes involved in DNA repair, cell survival and cell proliferation pathways. Increased accumulation of mutations correlates with early progression of the tumor and decreased survival.
  • Weigh-in once a week or you'll gain weight
    Stepping on the scale is common among dieters but how does the frequency of weigh-ins impact weight? A new study showed that the more frequently dieters weighed themselves the more weight they lost, and if participants went more than a week without weighing themselves, they gained weight.
  • Consumer loyalty driven by aesthetics over functionality
    Consumers' loyalty and passion for an automobile brand are driven more by appearance than practical concerns. Aesthetics that resonate on an emotional level are more responsible for brand loyalty than such factors as functionality and price, the study found.
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