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Chemical News is your source of fresh chemistry data and insights. Chemical news are aggregated from multiple chemistry sources and presented here for convenient consumption.
BBC News - Science & Environment
Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
  • Lead in teeth can tell a body's tale, study finds
    Your teeth can tell stories about you, and not just that you always forget to floss. The discovery could help police solve cold cases, an investigator has said. For instance, if an unidentified decomposed body is found, testing the lead in the teeth could immediately help focus the investigation on a certain geographic area. That way, law enforcement can avoid wasting resources checking for missing persons in the wrong places.
  • Hubble shows farthest lensing galaxy yields clues to early universe
    Astronomers have unexpectedly discovered the most distant galaxy that acts as a cosmic magnifying glass. Seen in a new image as it looked 9.6 billion years ago, this monster elliptical galaxy breaks the previous record holder by 200 million years.
  • Pervasive implicit hierarchies for race, religion, age revealed by study
    As much as social equality is advocated in the United States, a new study suggests that besides evaluating their own race and religion most favorably, people share implicit hierarchies for racial, religious, and age groups that may be different from their conscious, explicit attitudes and values.
  • Effect of loud noises on brain revealed in study
    Prolonged exposure to loud noise alters how the brain processes speech, potentially increasing the difficulty in distinguishing speech sounds, according to neuroscientists. Exposure to intensely loud sounds leads to permanent damage of the hair cells, which act as sound receivers in the ear. Once damaged, the hair cells do not grow back, leading to noise-induced hearing loss.
  • Monoamine oxidase A: Biomarker for postpartum depression
    Postpartum mood swings are correlated with high monoamine oxidase A binding, a study shows. For most women, the birth of their baby is one of the most strenuous but also happiest days in their lives. The vast majority of women experience a temporary drop in mood for a few days after birth. These symptoms of "baby blues" are not an illness; however, in some cases they can represent early signs of an imminent episode of depression: in 13 percent of mothers, the emotional turmoil experienced after childbirth leads to the development of a full-blown postpartum depression.
  • Fossils could be discovered on the moon: Signs of ancient life may be littered across the moon
    Physicists have tested what would happen if a piece of rock containing microscopic fossils from Earth was launched into space and hit the surface of the moon. The team turned fossil-filled rock into powder which was mixed with water and frozen to replicate a meteoroid.
  • Gulf oil spill researcher: Bacteria ate some toxins, but worst remain, research finds
    Bacteria in the Gulf of Mexico consumed many of the toxic components of the oil released during the Deepwater Horizon spill in the months after the spill, but not the most toxic contaminants, new research has found.
  • Brother of Hibiscus flower is found alive and well on Maui, Hawaii
    Most people are familiar with Hibiscus flowers -- they are an iconic symbol of tropical resorts worldwide where they are commonly planted in the landscape. Only a few, however, are aware of an equally beautiful and highly endangered related group of plants known as Hibiscadelphus -- literally 'brother of Hibiscus.' Remarkably, in 2012 scientists found a population of these unique trees in a remote, steep valley on the west side of Maui.
  • Congressional rift over environment influences public
    American citizens are increasingly divided over the issue of environmental protection and seem to be taking their cue primarily from Congress, finds new research. The gap between conservatives who oppose environmental protection and liberals who support it has risen drastically in the past 20 years, a trend seen among lawmakers, activists and -- as the study indicates -- the general public as well, said a sociologist.
  • Breakthrough in understanding of important blood protein
    A previously unknown protein mechanism has now been described by new research. This provides an exceptionally detailed understanding of how nature works, and it can also provide the ability to control nature -- in this case, it is about how coagulated blood can be dissolved, and this can lead to treatment of diseases carrying a risk of blood clots.
  • Numerous unknown jets from young stars and planetary nebulae discovered
    Preliminary research findings have identified hundreds of so far unknown jets from young stars, as well as numerous new planetary nebulae in the Galactic Plane.
  • Singing the same tune: Scientists develop novel ways of separating birdsong sources
    A new study could greatly improve current methods of localizing birdsong data. The study demonstrates the validity of using approximate maximum likelihood (AML) algorithms to determine the direction of arrival (DOA) of birdsong sources.
  • Chemists demonstrate 'brick-and-mortar' assembly of new molecular structures
    Chemists have described the self-assembly of large, symmetrical molecules in bricks-and-mortar fashion, a development with potential value for the field of organic electronic devices such as field-effect transistors and photovoltaic cells.
  • Boat noise impacts development, survival of sea hares
    The development and survival of an important group of marine invertebrates known as sea hares is under threat from increasing boat noise in the world's oceans, according to a new study. Sea hares usually hatch from their eggs to swim away and later feed on toxic alga but this study found that when exposed to playback of boat noise, more eggs failed to develop and those that hatched were more likely to die.
  • Consumers can save money on their electricity bills and negotiate better deals by joining forces
    Consumers can save money on their electricity bills and negotiate better deals by joining forces with similar groups of customers to switch energy suppliers, according to new research.
  • Comfortable climate indoors with porous glass incorporated into plaster
    Proper humidity and temperature play a key role in indoor climate. In the future, establishing a comfortable indoor environment may rely on porous glass incorporated into plaster, as this regulates moisture particularly well and keeps mold at bay.
  • Charging electric cars efficiently with inductive method
    We already charge our toothbrushes and cellphones using contactless technology. Researchers have developed a particularly efficient and cost-effective method that means electric cars could soon follow suit.
  • Giving emotions to virtual characters
    Researchers were able to simulate human facial expressions in virtual characters and use them in order to create better environments within a virtual communication.
  • Key to aging immune system: Discovery of DNA replication problem
    The immune system ages and weakens with time, making the elderly prone to life-threatening infection and other maladies, and scientists have now discovered a reason why.
  • Children and hot cars a cause for deadly concern
    Nearly 700 children have lost their lives over the last 20 years in the United States as a result of being left in or playing in a hot car. At last count, the total in the U.S. this year is 18.
  • Bees able to spot which flowers offer best rewards before landing
    Bumblebees are able to connect differences in pollen quality with floral features, like petal color, and so land only on the flowers that offer the best rewards, according to a new study.
  • How black truffles deal with jumpers in their genome
    Black truffles, also known as Périgord truffles, have a syrupy sweet flavor and are highly prized in haute cuisine. They are fungi that grow on the roots of oak and hazelnut trees, and are the second most expensive truffle species. The black truffle uses reversible epigenetic processes to regulate its genes, and adapt to changes in its surroundings. The 'methylome' illustrates how the truffle deals with its complex genome's repeating elements and 'jumping genes.' The authors say this may shed light on how traits like aroma and color are controlled.
  • Otzi Iceman had genetic predisposition for atherosclerosis: Much the same in ancient peoples as it is today
    While prevalence and types of risk factors for atherosclerosis have varied over time from ancient times to modern society -- such as levels of obesity, physical activity -- genetic predisposition/risk for the condition today appears to be very similar to that in ancient times.
  • Benefits of e-cigarettes outweigh harms, current evidence suggests
    A major scientific review of available research on the use, content, and safety of e-cigarettes has concluded that -- although long-term health effects of e-cigarette use are unknown -- compared with conventional cigarettes they are likely to be much less harmful to users or bystanders.
  • How can Britain be made more creative?
    The secret of creativity is not individual genius so much as in the interactions between artists, their peers and their audience, an author says, adding that "people can be made more creative ... through education and through encouragement for the collaborations and groups that might stimulate creative outputs."
  • Over 80% of patients undergoing interventions for aortic stenosis are in same or better health one year after procedure
    A survey of 13,860 patients who had undergone interventions for aortic valve disease in Germany has revealed that over 80% were in the same or a better state of health one year after the intervention, and was satisfied with the procedural outcome. Aortic stenosis -- the narrowing of the aortic valve in the heart -- is the most frequent valvular heart disease in the aging Western population.
  • Mechanism promoting multiple DNA mutations described by scientists
    Recent studies have shown that cancer development frequently involves the formation of multiple mutations that arise simultaneously and in close proximity to each other. These groups of clustered mutations are frequently found in regions where chromosomal rearrangements take place. The finding that cancer development often involves multiple mutations arising in clusters and in regions where chromosomal rearrangement takes place may one day lead to new cancer therapies.
  • Classic Lewis Carroll character inspires new ecological model
    Inspired by the Red Queen in Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass, researchers have improved a 35-year-old ecology model to better understand how species evolve over decades to millions of years. The new model, called a mean field model for competition, incorporates the "Red Queen Effect," an evolutionary hypothesis introduced by Lee Van Valen in the 1970s, which suggests that organisms must constantly increase their fitness (or ability to survive and reproduce) in order to compete with other ever-evolving organisms in an ever-changing environment.
  • Diverticulitis patients reveal psychological, physical symptoms long after acute attacks
    Patients were interviewed by a research team in great detail about the symptoms they experience weeks, months or even years after an acute diverticulitis attack. Their striking findings add to growing evidence that, for some patients, diverticulitis goes beyond isolated attacks and can lead to a chronic condition that mimics irritable bowel syndrome. The researchers used those insights to develop a questionnaire to help doctors better assess the long-term impact of diverticulitis, which ultimately could lead to better understanding and management of the disease.
  • Pesticide DDT linked to slow metabolism, obesity and diabetes, mouse study finds
    A new study in mice is the first to show that developmental exposure to DDT increases the risk of females later developing metabolic syndrome -- a cluster of conditions that include increased body fat, blood glucose, and cholesterol.
  • Vocal variety in African penguins: Four basic vocalizations used for adult communication, two more for the young
    Adult African penguins communicate using four different vocalizations and juveniles and chicks use two begging calls to request food.
  • New malaria vaccine candidates identified
    Researchers have discovered new vaccine targets that could help in the battle against malaria. Taking a new, large-scale approach to this search, researchers tested a library of proteins from the Plasmodium falciparum parasite with antibodies produced by the immune systems of a group of infected children.
  • Fear of losing money, not spending habits, affects investor risk tolerance
    Scientists analyzed the causes of risk tolerance and found that loss aversion, or the fear of losing money, is the primary factor that explains investors' risk tolerance.
  • Antarctic ice sheet is result of carbon dioxide decrease, not continental breakup
    Climate modelers have shown that the most likely explanation for the initiation of Antarctic glaciation during a major climate shift 34 million years ago was decreased carbon dioxide levels. The finding counters a 40-year-old theory suggesting massive rearrangements of Earth's continents caused global cooling and the abrupt formation of the Antarctic ice sheet. It will provide scientists insight into the climate change implications of current rising global carbon dioxide levels.
  • Deep-sea octopus broods eggs for over four years -- longer than any known animal
    Researchers have observed a deep-sea octopus brooding its eggs for four-and-a-half years -- longer than any other known animal. Throughout this time, the female kept the eggs clean and guarded them from predators.
  • Kids with autism and sensory processing disorders show differences in brain wiring
    Researchers have found that children with sensory processing disorders have decreased structural brain connections in specific sensory regions different than those in autism, further establishing SPD as a clinically important neurodevelopmental disorder.
  • Scientists reproduce evolutionary changes by manipulating embryonic development of mice
    By modifying the embryonic development of mice, scientists have reproduced in the laboratory the changes in teeth shape which, in mammals, took millions of years of evolution to take place.
  • Barnacles: Marine 'pest' provides advances in maritime anti-fouling and biomedicine
    Biologists performed cutting-edge research on a marine pest that will pave the way for novel anti-fouling paint for ships and boats and also improve bio-adhesives for medical and industrial applications.
  • Tidal forces gave moon its shape early in its history, new analysis finds
    The shape of the moon deviates from a simple sphere in ways that scientists have struggled to explain. A new study shows that most of the moon's overall shape can be explained by taking into account tidal effects acting early in the moon's history. The results provide insights into the moon's early history, its orbital evolution, and its current orientation in the sky.
  • Scientists call for new strategy in pursuit of HIV-free generation
    In light of the recent news that HIV has been detected in the Mississippi baby previously thought to have been cured of the disease, researchers are assessing how to help those born to HIV-infected mothers. These infants around the world are in need of new immune-based protective strategies, including vaccines delivered to mothers and babies and the means to boost potentially protective maternal antibodies, say researchers.
  • Double star with weird and wild planet-forming discs
    Astronomers have found wildly misaligned planet-forming gas discs around the two young stars in the binary system HK Tauri. These new observations provide the clearest picture ever of protoplanetary discs in a double star. The new result also helps to explain why so many exoplanets — unlike the planets in the Solar System — came to have strange, eccentric or inclined orbits.
  • Birthweight and breastfeeding have implications for children's health decades later
    Young adults who were breastfed for three months or more as babies have a significantly lower risk of chronic inflammation associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, according to new research.
  • Dissolvable fabric loaded with medicine might offer faster protection against HIV
    Bioengineers have discovered a potentially faster way to deliver a topical drug that protects women from contracting HIV. Their method spins the drug into silk-like fibers that quickly dissolve when in contact with moisture, releasing higher doses of the drug than possible with other topical materials.
  • Appreciation for fat jokes, belief in obese stereotypes linked
    From movies to television, obesity is still considered “fair game” for jokes and ridicule. A new study took a closer look at weight-related humor to see if anti-fat attitudes played into a person’s appreciation or distaste for fat humor in the media.
  • Finding quantum 'lines of desire': Physicists track quantum system's wanderings through quantum state space
    What paths do quantum particles, such as atoms or photons, follow through quantum state space? Scientists have used an "artificial atom" to continuously and repeatedly record the paths through quantum state space. From the cobweb of a million paths, a most likely path between two quantum states emerged, much as social trails emerge as people round off corners or cut across lawns between buildings.
  • Supportive moms and sisters boost female baboon's rank
    A study of dominance in female baboons suggests that the route to a higher rank is to maintain close ties with mom, and to have lots of supportive sisters.
  • Money talks when it comes to acceptability of 'sin' companies, study reveals
    Companies who make their money in the 'sin' industries such as the tobacco, alcohol and gaming industries typically receive less attention from institutional investors and financial analysts. But new research shows social norms and attitudes towards these types of businesses are subject to compromise when their share price looks to be on the rise.
  • Saving seeds the right way can save the world's plants
    Exotic pests, shrinking ranges and a changing climate threaten some of the world's most rare and ecologically important plants, and so conservationists establish seed collections to save the seeds in banks or botanical gardens in hopes of preserving some genetic diversity. For decades, these seed collections have been guided by simple models that offer a one-size-fits-all approach for how many seeds to gather. A new study, however, has found that more careful tailoring of seed collections to specific species and situations is critical to preserving plant diversity.
  • Dimly lit working environments: Correcting body clock is possible
    Researchers have, for the first time, conducted a study under real conditions on the body clocks of members of an international polar research station. The researchers have shown that a particular kind of artificial light is capable of ensuring that their biological rhythms are correctly synchronized despite the absence of sunlight.
  • Naltrexone may be effective in diminishing impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease patients
    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may confront a common but largely unrecognized challenge: the occurrence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as compulsive gambling, sexual behavior, eating, or spending. A team of investigators conducted a pilot study and found that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may be an effective treatment for diminishing ICD symptoms in PD patients.
  • Many depressed preschoolers still suffer in later school years
    Children diagnosed with depression as preschoolers are likely to suffer from depression as school-age children and young adolescents, new research shows. The investigators followed 246 children, now ages 9 to 12, who were enrolled in the study as preschoolers when they were 3 to 5 years old. The children and their primary caregivers participated in up to six annual and four semiannual assessments. They were screened using a tool called the Preschool Feelings Checklist and evaluated using an age-appropriate diagnostic interview.
  • Income a major driver of avoidable hospitalizations across New Jersey
    The household income of its residents is the most important factor in whether a community has high or low rates of avoidable hospital visits -- conditions that could be better managed in a doctor's office or other health care settings if treated at an early stage, according to a report.
  • Nature inspires a greener way to make colorful plastics
    Long before humans figured out how to create colors, nature had already perfected the process -- think stunning, bright butterfly wings of many different hues, for example. Now scientists are tapping into those secrets to develop a more environmentally friendly way to make colored plastics. Their method uses structure -- or the shapes and architectures of materials -- rather than dyes, to produce colors.
  • Exploring 3-D printing to make organs for transplants
    Printing whole new organs for transplants sounds like something out of a sci-fi movie, but the real-life budding technology could one day make actual kidneys, livers, hearts and other organs for patients who desperately need them. Scientists are reporting new understanding about the dynamics of 3-D bioprinting that takes them a step closer to realizing their goal of making working tissues and organs on-demand.
  • Decades-old amber collection offers new views of a lost world: Tiny grasshopper encased in amber
    Scientists are searching through a massive collection of 20-million-year-old amber found in the Dominican Republic more than 50 years ago, and the effort is yielding fresh insights into ancient tropical insects and the world they inhabited. Perhaps the most striking discovery thus far is that of a pygmy locust, a tiny grasshopper the size of a rose thorn that lived 18- to 20-million years ago and fed on moss, algae and fungi.
  • Laughter is the best medicine? The emotional appeal of stand-up comedy
    Comics taking to the stage should take note: how much of a hit they are with their audiences won’t be down to just their jokes. The link between humor and emotion plays a large part in how well an audience connects with a comedian, and vice versa, according to new research.
  • Breastfeeding: Do celebrity ambassadors help the ordinary woman?
    Breasts are the strongest symbol of female sexuality and are abundant in the media, on magazines, in adverts and in film. Celebrity breasts are depicted as objects of sexual desire and as a model for everyday women to aspire to. Broadcast images of breastfeeding however are scarce and elicit controversy and even revulsion.
  • Solar energy: Dyes help harvest light
    A new dye-sensitized solar cell absorbs a broad range of visible and infrared wavelengths. Dye-sensitized solar cells rely on dyes that absorb light to mobilize a current of electrons and are a promising source of clean energy. Scientists have now developed zinc porphyrin dyes that harvest light in both the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum.
  • Heat-responsive polymers that do not breakdown in water may lead to new antifouling coatings and enhanced oil recovery
    Heat-responsive polymers that do not breakdown in water may lead to new antifouling coatings and enhanced oil recovery.
  • Electric vehicles: Recharging in private
    An electronic payment system will protect the privacy of customers recharging their electric vehicles.
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