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Chemical News is your source of fresh chemistry data and insights. Chemical news are aggregated from multiple chemistry sources and presented here for convenient consumption.
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  • NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility completes initial assessment after Orbital launch mishap
    The Wallops Incident Response Team completed today an initial assessment of Wallops Island, Virginia, following the catastrophic failure of Orbital Science Corp.'s Antares rocket shortly after liftoff at 6:22 p.m. EDT Tuesday, Oct. 28, from Pad 0A of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia.
  • First detailed picture of cancer-related cell enzyme in action on chromosome unit
    New insight into the function of an enzyme related to the BRCA1 breast-cancer protein has been released by researchers. The study produced the first detailed working image of an enzyme in a group that is associated with many types of cancer. The researchers obtained the first crystal structure of a gene-regulation enzyme working on a nucleosome. The image reveals previously unknown information about how the enzyme attaches to its nucleosome target.
  • Same votes, different voting districts would alter election results in NC: Math study bolsters call for non-partisan redistricting reform
    Researchers have developed a mathematical model that shows how changes in congressional voting districts affect election outcomes. Focusing on the last election, they show the outcome of the 2012 US House of Representatives elections in North Carolina would have been very different had the state's congressional districts been drawn with only the legal requirements of redistricting in mind. The researchers hope the study will bolster calls for redistricting reform in 2016.
  • Running robots of future may learn from world's best two-legged runners: Birds
    With an eye toward making better running robots, researchers have made surprising new findings about some of nature's most energy efficient bipeds -- running birds. Their skills may have evolved from the time of the dinosaurs and they may now be superior to any other bipedal runners -- including humans.
  • Case study: Hearing loss in one infant twin affects mother's speech to both babies
    Is it possible that hearing loss in one infant from a pair of twins can affect the mother’s speech to both infants? A new acoustics study zeroes in on this question and suggests that not only is this alteration of speech entirely possible, but that mothers speak to both infants as if they are hearing impaired.
  • The science of charismatic voices: How one man was viewed as authoritarian, then benevolent
    When a right-wing Italian politician named Umberto Bossi suffered a severe stroke in 2004, his speech became permanently impaired. Strangely, this change impacted Bossi’s perception among his party’s followers -- from appearing authoritarian to benevolent. Now researchers think they know why.
  • Urban seismic network detects human sounds
    When listening to the Earth, what clues can seismic data reveal about the impact of urban life? Although naturally occurring vibrations have proven useful to seismologists, until now the vibrations caused by humans haven’t been explored in any real depth. Researchers have described their efforts to tap into an urban seismic network to monitor the traffic of trains, planes, automobiles and other modes of human transport.
  • Testing of filters to contain radioactive materials
    If released in significant quantities, radioactive materials pose a potential threat to people and the environment. Now, new research is helping the nuclear industry ensure that radioactive materials continue to be safely contained and that standards of safety are continuously improved.
  • Plump turtles swim better: First models of swimming animals
    Bigger is better, if you're a leatherback sea turtle. For the first time, researchers have measured the forces that act on a swimming animal and the energy the animal must expend to move through the water.
  • Innovative study utilizing video games shows sleep apnea may affect memory of everyday events
    Sleep apnea may affect your ability to form new spatial memories, such as remembering where you parked your car, new research suggests. The study demonstrates through the playing of a specific video game that disruption of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as a consequence of sleep apnea impairs spatial memory in humans even when other sleep stages are intact.
  • Low carb, high fat diets may reduce seizures in tough-to-treat epilepsy
    Diets high in fat and low in carbohydrates, such as the ketogenic or modified Atkins diet, may reduce seizures in adults with tough-to-treat epilepsy, according to a review of research.
  • Novel ultrasound technology to screen for heart conditions developed by engineers
    Engineers have determined, for the first time, the impact of a ring-shaped vortex on transporting blood flow in normal and abnormal ventricles within the human heart, and have developed a novel ultrasound technology that makes screening cheaper and much easier, making it possible to reach a large number of people and even infants.
  • Ammonium source in open ocean tracked by researchers
    To understand the extent to which human activities are polluting Earth's atmosphere and oceans, it's important to distinguish human-made pollutants from compounds that occur naturally. A new study finds that deposition of ammonium, a source of nitrogen pollution, over the open ocean comes mostly from natural marine sources, and not from human activity.
  • Tiny carbon nanotube pores make big impact
    Scientists have created a new kind of ion channel based on short carbon nanotubes, which can be inserted into synthetic bilayers and live cell membranes to form tiny pores that transport water, protons, small ions and DNA. These carbon nanotube "porins" have significant implications for future health care and bioengineering applications.
  • Teeth, sex and testosterone reveal secrets of aging in wild mouse lemurs
    Mouse lemurs can live at least eight years in the wild -- twice as long as some previous estimates, a long-term longitudinal study finds.
  • Scientists generate first human stomach tissue in lab with stem cells
    Scientists used pluripotent stem cells to generate functional, three-dimensional human stomach tissue in a laboratory -- creating an unprecedented tool for researching the development and diseases of an organ central to several public health crises, ranging from cancer to diabetes. Scientists used human pluripotent stem cells -- which can become any cell type in the body -- to grow a miniature version of the stomach.
  • New frog discovered inhabiting I-95 corridor from Connecticut to North Carolina
    More than a half century after claims that a new frog species existed in New York and New Jersey were dismissed, a team of scientists has proven that the frog is living in wetlands from Connecticut to North Carolina and are naming it after the ecologist who first noticed it.
  • Combing the atmosphere to measure greenhouse gases
    By remotely 'combing' the atmosphere with a custom laser-based instrument, researchers have developed a new technique that can accurately measure -- over a sizeable distance -- amounts of several of the major 'greenhouse' gases implicated in climate change.
  • Clean smell doesn't always mean clean air
    Scientists are taking a closer look at aerosol formation involving an organic compound -- called limonene -- that provides the pleasant smell of cleaning products and air fresheners. This research will help to determine what byproducts these sweet-smelling compounds are adding to the air while we are using them to remove germs and odors.
  • Dozens of genes associated with autism in new research
    Two major genetic studies of autism, involving more than 50 laboratories worldwide, have newly implicated dozens of genes in the disorder. The research shows that rare mutations in these genes affect communication networks in the brain and compromise fundamental biological mechanisms that govern whether, when, and how genes are activated overall.
  • Planet-forming lifeline discovered in a binary star system
    Scientists have detected a streamer of dust and gas flowing from a massive outer disk toward the inner reaches of a binary star system. This never-before-seen feature may be responsible for sustaining a second, smaller disk of planet-forming material that otherwise would have disappeared long ago.
  • In autoimmune diseases affecting millions, researchers pinpoint genetic risks, cellular culprits
    Scores of autoimmune diseases afflicting one in 12 Americans -- ranging from type 1 diabetes, to multiple sclerosis (MS), to rheumatoid arthritis, to asthma -- mysteriously cause the immune system to harm tissues within our own bodies. Now, a new study pinpoints the complex genetic origins for many of these diseases, a discovery that may lead to better diagnosis and ultimately to improved treatments.
  • Scientists make enzyme that could help explain origins of life
    Mimicking natural evolution in a test tube, scientists have devised an enzyme with a unique property that might have been crucial to the origin of life on Earth.
  • Contamination likely explains 'food genes in blood' claim
    Laboratory contaminants likely explain the results of a recent study claiming that complete genes can pass from foods we eat into our blood, according to a molecular biologist who re-examined data from the controversial research paper.
  • Parasite-schizophrenia connection: One-fifth of schizophrenia cases may involve the parasite T. gondii
    Many factors, both genetic and environmental, have been blamed for increasing the risk of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Some, such as a family history of schizophrenia, are widely accepted. Others, such as infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite transmitted by soil, undercooked meat and cat feces, are still viewed with skepticism. A new study used epidemiological modeling methods to determine the proportion of schizophrenia cases that may be attributable to T. gondii infection. The work suggests that about one-fifth of cases may involve the parasite.
  • Supersonic laser-propelled rockets: Hybrid approach may help power rockets, launch satellites, push future aircraft past Mach 10
    Researchers have described a new system that integrates a laser-ablation propulsion system with the gas blasting nozzles of a spacecraft which can increase the speed of the gas flow out of the system to supersonic speeds while reducing the amount of burned fuel.
  • Decades of research: Effectiveness of phone counseling for cancer patients still unknown
    A new study asks an important question: after decades of use and study, can we definitely show that remote interventions improve psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors, or might there be a required, in-person component of these interventions?
  • Walking workstations improve physical, mental health, builds healthier workplace
    Walking workstations can improve not only physical, but also mental health during the workday, a new study has found. With growing concerns regarding obesity in the United States, the author hopes the study encourages employers to examine methods to assist workers in in healthy living.
  • Projecting a robot's intentions: New spin on virtual reality helps engineers read robots' minds
    In a darkened, hangar-like space inside MIT's Building 41, a small, Roomba-like robot is trying to make up its mind. Standing in its path is an obstacle — a human pedestrian who’s pacing back and forth. To get to the other side of the room, the robot has to first determine where the pedestrian is, then choose the optimal route to avoid a close encounter. As the robot considers its options, its “thoughts” are projected on the ground: A large pink dot appears to follow the pedestrian — a symbol of the robot’s perception of the pedestrian’s position in space.
  • Mechanism that allows differentiated cell to reactivate as a stem cell revealed
    A study, performed with fruit flies, describes a gene that determines whether a specialized cell conserves the capacity to become a stem cell again. Unveiling the genetic traits that favor the retention of stem cell properties is crucial for regenerative medicine.
  • Meiotic cell division 'the other way round'
    Meiosis is the two-step series of cell divisions that make sexual reproduction and genetic diversity possible. Researchers have now dived into the process of meiosis in specific plant species and revealed that these plants display an inversion of the standard meiotic phases.
  • Nanosafety research: The quest for the gold standard
    Toxicologists have evaluated several thousand studies on the risks associated with nanoparticles and discovered no end of shortcomings: poorly prepared experiments and results that don't carry any clout. Scientists are now developing new standards for such experiments within an international network.
  • Thousands of substances ranked according to potential exposure level
    An overwhelming number of chemicals from household and industrial products are in the environment -- and hundreds are in our bodies. But for most of them, scientists have yet to determine whether they cause health problems. Now they've taken the first step toward doing that by estimating which substances people are exposed to the most.
  • Why plants don't get sunburn
    Plants rely on sunlight to make their food, but they also need protection from its harmful rays, just like humans do. Recently, scientists discovered a group of molecules in plants that shields them from sun damage. Now scientists report on the mechanics of how these natural plant sunscreens work.
  • Microrockets fueled by water neutralize chemical and biological warfare agents
    With fears growing over chemical and biological weapons falling into the wrong hands, scientists are developing microrockets to fight back against these dangerous agents, should the need arise. They have developed new spherical micromotors that rapidly neutralize chemical and biological agents and use water as fuel.
  • Support for fecal testing in familial colorectal cancer screening
    Fecal immunochemical tests may be as effective as colonoscopies when it comes to detecting colorectal cancer among first-degree relatives of patients with colorectal cancer, according to a new study.
  • Largest ever dataset of individual deaths in Africa, SE Asia reveals changing health
    An unprecedented insight into the changing health of people across Africa and Asia -- including the fluctuating burdens of HIV, malaria and childhood mortality -- is revealed today by the publication of the largest ever dataset of individual deaths recorded on-the-ground.
  • Liberal or conservative? Reactions to disgust are a dead giveaway
    The way a person's brain responds to a single disgusting image is enough to reliably predict whether he or she identifies politically as liberal or conservative. As we approach Election Day, the researchers say that the findings come as a reminder of something we all know but probably don't always do: 'Think, don't just react.'
  • Can social media help stop the spread of HIV?
    In addition to providing other potential benefits to public health, all of those tweets and Facebook posts could help curb the spread of HIV. Although public health researchers have focused early applications of social media on reliably monitoring the spread of diseases such as the flu, a new article tells of a future in which social media might predict and even change biomedical outcomes.
  • EEG test to help understand, treat schizophrenia
    An EEG test to study and treat schizophrenia has been validated by researchers. The findings offer a clinical test that could be used to help diagnose persons at risk for developing mental illness later in life, as well as an approach for measuring the efficacies of different treatment options.
  • Potential target for treating triple-negative breast cancer identified
    A protein that could prevent metastasis and recurrence of breast cancer has been identified by researchers. So-called "triple-negative" breast cancer represents between 12 and 17 percent of all breast cancers. It derives its name from the lack of receptors for estrogen, progesterone and Her2. The absence of these receptors rules out proven hormone therapies such as tamoxifen. Triple-negative breast cancer can be more aggressive and is more likely to recur than other breast cancers.
  • Strong bonds with pets may help foster resiliency in military-connected children
    Developing resiliency has important benefits for children, especially those from military families faced with significant challenges such as parental deployment and frequent moves. New research supports the idea that, along with other key resources, strong attachments to animals may help military-connected children develop resiliency and other positive developmental traits.
  • Cinema-like environment helps audiences become immersed in movies even when shown on cell phones
    If the surroundings are designed to be sufficiently stimulating, even a simple computer screen is enough to generate an intense cinematic experience. After observing some 300 study subjects, researchers concluded that the angle of viewing does not play a vital role in the cinematic experience, thus disproving various hypotheses. According to the results of their study, the presence of so-called contextual visual cues plays a greater role in actually drawing viewers into a movie.
  • New solar power material converts 90 percent of captured light into heat
    A multidisciplinary engineering team developed a new nanoparticle-based material for concentrating solar power plants designed to absorb and convert to heat more than 90 percent of the sunlight it captures. The new material can also withstand temperatures greater than 700 degrees Celsius and survive many years outdoors in spite of exposure to air and humidity.
  • Upgrading infrastructure could reduce flood damage
    The severe flooding that devastated a wide swath of Colorado last year might have been less destructive if the bridges, roads and other infrastructure had been upgraded or modernized, according to a new study.
  • Where you live doesn't matter if you have heart disease, study finds
    People living in rural areas are at no greater risk of dying from heart disease than their urban counterparts, according to a new study. The study, the first to examine outpatient quality of care between urban and rural communities, counters existing research, which suggested gaps in care for those living in rural areas.
  • Gentle caffeine boost for premature babies
    Researchers have developed a UV-activated membrane which releases a gentle dose of medication to the skin of a patient. In future those who fear injections will be able to sleep soundly, as will premature babies too, since the new dosing technique will spare them additional stress.
  • Genome sequencing of the jujube tree completed
    The complete, high quality sequencing of the jujube genome has been announced by researchers. Jujube is the most economically important member of the Rhamnaceae family, and the jujube genome is particularly difficult to sequence due the high level of heterozygosity and other complicating factors. It is the first time that a genome in the Rhamnaceae, Buckthorn, family has been sequenced.
  • Planck 2013 results
    Astronomy & Astrophysics is publishing a special feature of 31 articles describing the data gathered by Planck over 15 months of observations and released by ESA and the Planck Collaboration in March 2013. This series of papers presents the initial scientific results extracted from this first Planck dataset.
  • Nestling birds struggle in noisy environments
    Unable to fly, nestling birds depend on their parents for both food and protection: vocal communication between parents and offspring helps young birds to determine when they should beg for food and when they should crouch in the nest to avoid a predator seeking an easy meal. A group of researchers has found that ambient, anthropomorphic noise -- from traffic, construction and other human activities -- can break this vital communications link, leaving nestlings vulnerable or hungry.
  • To reap the brain benefits of physical activity, just get moving
    Everyone knows that exercise makes you feel more mentally alert at any age. But do you need to follow a specific training program to improve your cognitive function? Science has shown that the important thing is to just get moving. It's that simple.
  • Nano ruffles in brain matter
    Researchers have deciphered the role of nanostructures around brain cells in the central nervous system. An accumulation of a protein called amyloid-beta into large insoluble deposits called plaques is known to cause Alzheimer's disease. One aspect of this illness that has not received much attention is which role the structure of the brain environment plays. How do macromolecules and macromolecular assemblies, such as polysaccharides, influence cell interaction in the brain?
  • Aortic valve replacement appears safe, effective in very elderly patients
    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) can safely be used to treat severe aortic stenosis in patients age 90 years and older and is associated with a low risk of operative stroke and mortality, according to a study.
  • Genome sequenced of enterovirus D68 circulating in St. Louis
    The genome of enterovirus D68 sampled from patients treated at St. Louis Children’s Hospital has been sequenced by researchers. Nationwide, the virus has spread rapidly in recent months and caused severe respiratory illness in young children, with some patients requiring hospitalization.
  • Latest research on thyroid cancer therapy
    Novel therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes in thyroid cancer, for example using targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs to tumor cells, are among the latest treatment approaches for thyroid cancer, experts report.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma: New research
    The prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer, is increasing rapidly. New research to determine the impact of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy on survival in PTC, describing a novel blood test able to detect circulating BRAFV600E-positive tumor DNA, and identifying a long non-coding.
  • Advances in Graves' disease, including a new mouse model
    A unique mouse model of Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism, has been developed by scientists, and new research findings may help improve the treatment of Graves' disease, experts report.
  • Tourism as a driver of illicit drug use, HIV risk in the Dominican Republic
    A new study concludes three thing: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviors in tourism areas.
  • Overuse injuries becoming more common in young athletes
    From Little League players injuring their elbow ligaments to soccer and basketball players tearing their ACLs, sports injuries related to overuse are becoming more common in younger athletes.
  • ECG on the run: Continuous ECG surveillance of marathon athletes is feasible
    The condition of an athlete's heart has for the first time been accurately monitored throughout the duration of a marathon race. The real-time monitoring was achieved by continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) surveillance and data transfer over the public mobile phone network to a telemedicine center along the marathon route. This new development in cardiac testing in endurance athletes, said investigators, 'would allow instantaneous diagnosis of potentially fatal rhythm disorders.'
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  • An apparent decline in the rate of new cases is a dollop of good news

  • State's travel restrictions go beyond federal guidelines

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  • Study identifies speech patterns behind public perceptions
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